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  • 2XX Status Code
    This status code element in a server response, the request was successfully received, understood and accepted.
  • 301 Redirects
    A 301 redirect indicates the permanent moving of a webpage from one location to another. Its refers to HTTP status code of the page.
  • 3rd Party Request
    Third Party request means a request from a third party for records relating to an end user’s use of the services.
  • 404 Errors
    The HTTP 404 Not Found Error means that the webpage you were trying to reach could not be found on the server. It is a Client-side Error which means that either the page has been removed or moved and the URL was not changed accordingly, or that you typed in the URL incorrectly. Put simply, a 404 Not Found Error means that the webpage simply does not exist with the URL entered.
  • 4XX Status Code
    This status code element in a server response, the request contains bad syntax or cannot be fulfilled.
  • 5XX status Code
    This group of HTTP status code indicates that the server is aware that it is in error or is incapable of performing the request. The server response usually includes an explanation of the error situation and if it is a temporary or permanent condition.
  • Abstract data type
    In computer science, an abstract data type is a theoretical data type that is largely defined by the operations and work on it and the limitations that apply. Professionals describe an abstract data type as a “mathematical model” for groups of data types, or as a “value with associated operations” that is independent of a particular implementation.
  • Abstract IL
    Abstract IL (Intermediate Language) is a software development Kit (SDK) consisting of libraries, documentation and other development tools that can be used to manipulate the contents of .NET framework and binary files at a high level.
  • Abstract State Machine Language (AsmL)
    Abstract State Machine Language (AsmL) is an executable specification language based on the theory of Abstract State Machine (ASM). AsmL is used for system modeling, analysis, simulation and conformance testing. AsmL is developed by Microsoft\'s Foundations of Software Engineering (FSE) research team. It integrates fully with the .NET environment and Microsoft\'s development tools, including Word and Visual Studio .NET.
  • Accelerated hub architecture (AHA)
    Accelerated hub architecture (AHA) is an Intel chipset design used in the 800-series family of chipsets. AHA uses a dedicated bus in order to transfer data between the two main parts of the chipset: the memory controller hub (MCH) and the I/O controller hub (ICH). The MCH supports the upper portion of the motherboard, which includes the memory (RAM) and video ports (AGP), which it interfaces to the CPU. The ICH supports the lower part of the board, which includes connectivity ports like the peripheral component interconnect (PCI), universal serial bus (USB), local area network (LAN), integrated drive electronics (IDE) and sound. Accelerated hub architecture is also known as Intel hub architecture.
  • Accelerated hub architecture (AHA)
    Accelerated hub architecture (AHA) is an Intel chipset design used in the 800-series family of chipsets. AHA uses a dedicated bus in order to transfer data between the two main parts of the chipset: the memory controller hub (MCH) and the I/O controller hub (ICH). The MCH supports the upper portion of the motherboard, which includes the memory (RAM) and video ports (AGP), which it interfaces to the CPU. The ICH supports the lower part of the board, which includes connectivity ports like the peripheral component interconnect (PCI), universal serial bus (USB), local area network (LAN), integrated drive electronics (IDE) and sound. Accelerated hub architecture is also known as Intel hub architecture.
  • Accelerated Mobile Page (AMP)
    Accelerated Mobile Page (AMP) is an initiative to create attractive web pages that load quickly on mobile devices, originally developed by Google. It consists of a modified version of HTML called AMP HTML, a JavaScript library, AMP JS, and a caching library, Google AMP Cache. The project is open source.
  • Access control entries (ACE)
    Access control entries (ACE) are entries in an access control list containing information describing the access rights related to a particular security identifier or user. Each access control entry contains an ID, which identifies the subject group or individual. An access control list may have several access control entries with each one defining the access rights of different groups or individuals.
  • Access Control Facility 2 (ACF2)
    Access Control Facility 2 (ACF2) is mainframe security software distributed by Computer Associates. It is used to protect a mainframe and its resources. The software prevents the deliberate or accidental modification, deletion, corruption, or viral infection of important files and data through extensive security measures like: Access control Permission requirements Extensive logging of activities The system status is monitored continuously and completely, and any access attempt is logged so it helps to identify potential intruders, and allows for the identification and analysis of changes and trends in the use of the system.
  • Access control list (ACL)
    Access control list (ACL) refers to the permissions attached to an object that specify which users are granted access to that object and the operations it is allowed to perform. Each entry in an access control list specifies the subject and an associated operation that is permitted.
  • Access control system (ACS)
    An access control system (ACS) is a type of security that manages and controls who or what is allowed entrance to a system, environment or facility. It identifies entities that have access to a controlled device or facility based on the validity of their credentials.
  • Access governance
    Access governance is the idea of managing individual user access in ways that protect networks and systems. It\'s the application of specific policy to access paradigms, and a broad overarching framework for how access works in a given digital environment.
  • Access method
    An access method is a software component, operating system service or network interface that handles the storage/retrieval and sending/receipt of data. Access methods provide an application programming interface (API) for programmers to perform these services, which rely on low-level, specialized instructions. In the 1960s, access methods were introduced by IBM as part of the mainframe OS/360 to provide access to data stored on disks, magnetic tapes and other external storage devices. In non-mainframe operating systems, this function is handled by device drivers.
  • Access modifiers
    Access modifiers are keywords used to specify the accessibility of a class (or type) and its members. These modifiers can be used from code inside or outside the current application.
  • Accessibility
    The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both direct access and indirect access meaning compatibility with a person\'s assistive technology. Accessibility can be viewed as the \"ability to access\" and benefit from some system or entity.
  • Accessibility testing
    Accessibility testing is the process of testing software, hardware, a website or virtually any IT component\'s ease of use for individuals with certain disabilities. It is done to ensure that any new component can easily be accessible by physically disabled individuals despite any respective handicaps.
  • Acknowledgment code (ACK)
    An acknowledgment code (ACK) is a type of unique signal that a computer sends to show that data has been transmitted successfully. The acknowledgement code is an ASCII character that has been designated to serve as a signal between sender and recipient. An acknowledgment code is also known as an acknowledgment character.
  • Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM)
    Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) is a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-compliant directory service used for building directory-enabled applications. ADAM is intended for users who do not want to set up a domain controller to enable directory services. It runs on Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Professional. Following the release of Windows Server 2008m ADAM came to be known as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS).
  • Active Directory Federated Services (ADFS)
    Active Directory Federated Services (ADFS) is software designed by Microsoft for the Windows operating system that provides users with a single sign-in for all access points and applications throughout the organization. It follows a claim-based access that allows the user full access with a single sign-in while maintaining security and federated identity.
  • Active Server Pages
    Active Server Pages (also known as ASP or classic ASP) is Microsoft’s first server-side script engine that enabled dynamically-generated web pages. While the initial release was an add-on to the Internet Information Services (IIS) component of Windows NT 4.0, it was later incorporated into the Windows Server operating system. ASP employs server-side scripting to dynamically produce web pages based on a specific request from the client. The result is an HTML webpage sent back to the client for display. VBScript is the default scripting language used for writing ASP, although other scripting languages can be used.
  • Active Template Library
    Active Template Library is a group of Microsoft C++ template classes (program routines) that are specifically designed to simplify Component Object Model (COM) and ActiveX development and coding. Responding to market demand for compact and easily downloadable objects, Microsoft introduced ATL as a lightweight technology to complement Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). ATL is formerly known as ActiveX Template Library (ATL).
  • Acyclic Growth
    An acyclic graph is a graph without cycles (a cycle is a complete circuit). When following the graph from node to node, you will never visit the same node twice. This graph (the thick black line) is acyclic, as it has no cycles (complete circuits). A connected acyclic graph, like the one above, is called a tree.
  • Ad blocking
    Ad blocking or ad filtering is a software capability for removing or altering online advertising in a web browser or an application. The most popular ad blocking tools are browser extensions. Other methods are also available.
  • Ad Clicks
    An ad click is a click on a banner ad or button. The ad acts as a link to a website or landing page.Many campaigns in affiliate marketing, display ad marketing, and paid search are based on the calculation of ad clicks. The calculation model is called pay per click (short: PPC) or cost per click (CPC).
  • Ad Views
    It is a single display of online content to a user’s web-enabled device.” It’s the number of times the ad is displayed, whether it is clicked on or not. Each display counts as a single impression.
  • Adaptive
    Taking available information into account. For example, an adaptive mesh-generating algorithm generates a finer resolution mesh near discontinuities such as boundaries and corners. An adaptive routing algorithm may send identical messages in different directions at different times depending on the local density information it has on message traffic
  • Adaptive Control
    Adaptive control is the control method used by a controller which must adapt to a controlled system with parameters which vary, or are initially uncertain. For example, as an aircraft flies, its mass will slowly decrease as a result of fuel consumption; a control law is needed that adapts itself to such changing conditions. Adaptive control is different from robust control in that it does not need a priori information about the bounds on these uncertain or time-varying parameters; robust control guarantees that if the changes are within given bounds the control law need not be changed, while adaptive control is concerned with control law changing itself.
  • Adaptive packet assembly (APA)
    Adaptive packet assembly (APA) is an error control technique applied to modems to increase line fault tolerance and facilitate split data packet transmission at short intervals. APA works with other modem error control techniques to improve modem transmission quality.
  • Adaptive Selling
    Adaptive selling is a custom or tailored approach to selling, which takes into account the type of customer, the sales situation and the feedback received. Identifying an individual’s social style is an important feature of adaptive selling.Adaptive selling is adapting sales processes and terms to the needs and problems of a customer.
  • Adaptive Selling
    Adaptive selling is an approach to personal selling in which selling behaviors are altered during the sales interaction or across customer interactions, based on information about the nature of the selling situation.
  • Adaptive Web Design (AWD)
    Another strategy to designing multiple equipment is adaptive web design. It focuses on the concept of adjusting a web application on the server side to suit the device of the customer, rather than on the browser of the customer (user), as is the situation with RWD.
  • address bus
    An address bus is a computer bus architecture used to transfer data between devices that are identified by the hardware address of the physical memory (the physical address), which is stored in the form of binary numbers to enable the data bus to access memory storage. The address bus is used by the CPU or a direct memory access (DMA) enabled device to locate the physical address to communicate read/write commands. All address busses are read and written by the CPU or DMA in the form of bits.
  • Address Generation
    The address generation unit, sometimes also called address computation unit, is an execution unit inside central processing units that calculates addresses used by the CPU to access main memory.By having address calculations handled by separate circuitry that operates in parallel with the rest of the CPU, the number of CPU cycles required for executing various machine instructions can be reduced, bringing performance improvements.
  • Address Mask
    An address mask or subnet mask is used to differentiate the network component of the IP address by dividing IP address into a network address and host address. address mask or subnet mask is used to design subnetworks or subnet in a network.
  • Address Space
    An address space is a range of valid addresses in memory that are available for a program or process. That is, it is the memory that a program or process can access. The memory can be either physical or virtual and is used for executing instructions and storing data.
  • Address Translation
    When the system allocates a frame to any page, it translates this logical address into a physical address and create entry into the page table to be used throughout execution of the program. When a process is to be executed, its corresponding pages are loaded into any available memory frames.
  • Adjacency Matrix
    In graph theory and computer science, an adjacency matrix is a square matrix used to represent a finite graph. The elements of the matrix indicate whether pairs of vertices are adjacent or not in the graph. In the special case of a finite simple graph, the adjacency matrix is a-matrix with zeros on its diagonal.
  • Adopter Categories
    Adopter categories divide consumers into segments based on their willingness to try out a new innovation or product. Adopter categories, as a term, is part of the Diffusion of Innovations Theory and has been applied to several studies, including marketing, organizational studies, knowledge management, communications, and complexity studies, among others.
  • Advanced authoring format (AAF)
    Advanced authoring format (AAF) is a cross-platform file format that enables the interchange of data between multimedia tools. The format was developed by Microsoft in 1998, and was designed to be a common file format that all multimedia authoring applications can use to create multimedia presentations. AAF aims to provide designers with the option to use a plethora of tools for developing multimedia content without having to convert files from one format to another. The AAF project is created and run by the Advanced Media Workflow Association (AMWA).
  • Advanced Interactive eXecutive (AIX)
    Advanced Interactive eXecutive (AIX) is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed, produced and sold by IBM for several IBM platforms, but originally produced for the IBM 6150 RISC workstation. Other supported platforms include: IBM System i System/370 mainframes PS/2 personal computers IBM RS/6000 series IBM POWER and PowerPC-based systems Apple Network Server AIX is one of four commercially available operating systems currently certified to The Open Group's Unix 03 Product Standard, along with Mac OS X, HP-UX and Solaris.
  • Advanced Search Operators
    Google search operators are special characters and commands (sometimes called “advanced operators”) that extend the capabilities of regular text searches. Search operators can be useful for everything from content research to technical SEO audits
  • Affiliate
    It is a website that promotes another company’s products or services on its space, and earns commission from it. This practice is known as Affiliate Marketing.
  • Affinities
    It refers to the tendency for similar or complementary retail stores to be located in close proximity to one another.
  • Agent (Slave)
    The test agents are used to run the tests and collect data including system information and response time information behalf of the test controllers. Jmeter server (jmeter-server.bat) work as load generating agents. The test agent runs as a service that listens for requests from the test controller to start a new test. When the test agent receives a request, the test agent service starts a process on which to run the tests. Each test agent runs the same test plan.
  • Aggregate Data
    Aggregate data are data combined from several measurements. When data is aggregated, groups of observations are replaced with summary statistics based on those observations. In a data warehouse, the use of aggregate data dramatically reduces the time to query large sets of data.
  • Agile Content Development
    Agile content development is a technology-supported method to develop and continuously optimize competitive content. The methodology revolutionizes the classic linear writing of SEO-optimized content by consistently integrating the users and continually measures the content performance.
  • AJAX
    Ajax is a set of web development techniques using many web technologies on the client side to create asynchronous web applications. With Ajax, web applications can send and retrieve data from a server asynchronously without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page
  • Alpha Beta Pruning
    Alpha–beta pruning is a search algorithm that seeks to decrease the number of nodes that are evaluated by the minimax algorithm in its search tree. It is an adversarial search algorithm used commonly for machine playing of two-player games.
  • Alt Tags
    More correctly, these are ALT “attributes” (e.g. IMG is a “tag”). This is text coded in the HTML that associates words with web graphics.
  • Alt Text
    It is an HTML tag, where description of an image (or any other multimedia) can be inserted. For instance, when a visitor chooses ‘don’t display images’ for a website, the alt-text of an image is shown in place of the image.
  • Amdahl’s Law
    In computer architecture, Amdahl\'s law is a formula which gives the theoretical speedup in latency of the execution of a task at a fixed workload that can be expected of a system whose resources are improved
  • AMI
    Alternate Mark Inversion :is a synchronous clock encoding technique which uses bipolar pulses to represent logical 1 values. It is therefore a three level system. A logical 0 is represented by no symbol, and a logical 1 by pulses of alternating polarity. The alternating coding prevents the build-up of a d.c. voltage level down the cable. This is considered an advantage since the cable may be used to carry a small d.c. current to power intermediate equipment such as line repeaters.
  • Anchor Text
    It is a clickable text on Hyperlink,The anchor text, link label, link text, or link title is the visible, clickable text in a hyperlink. The words contained in the anchor text can determine the ranking that the page will receive by search engines.
  • Ancillary Service
    A service offering provided by modal operators in addition to basic transportation services. The provision of such services typically includes sorting, storing product prior to delivery, marking or tagging the product, and collecting rate shipment.
  • And Parallelism
    A form of parallelism exploited by some implementations of parallel logic programming languages, in which the terms in conjunctions are evaluated simultaneously, and parent computations are allowed to proceed only once their immediate children have completed
  • And/Or Tree
    An and–or tree is a graphical representation of the reduction of problems to conjunctions and disjunctions of subproblems.
  • Anticipation Ratio
    It refers to the number of communications involving the transfer of information to the number of communications in which information is requested
  • Anxiety Elements
    From an optimization perspective, anxiety elements are parts of a web page that create anxiety for your visitors and reduce their inclination to convert on your page
  • Anxiety Elements
    From an optimization perspective, anxiety elements are parts of a web page that create anxiety for your visitors and reduce their inclination to convert on your page.
  • Anycast
    Anycast is a network addressing and routing technique that allows incoming requests to be transmitted to various places or \"servers.\"
  • AOmedia
    The Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia) is a non-profit industry consortium for the development of open, royalty-free technology for multimedia delivery headquartered in Wakefield, Massachusetts, USA. It adopts the principles of the development of open web standards for the creation of video standards that can serve as royalty-free alternatives to the hitherto dominant standards of the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and the related business model that exploits intellectual property through patent royalties and became associated with financial uncertainties, especially for internet companies and innovators.
  • Apache Lucene
    Apache Lucene is a high-performance and full-featured text search engine library written entirely in Java from the Apache Software Foundation. It is a technology suitable for nearly any application that requires full-text search, especially in a cross-platform environment
  • Apache Sark
    Apache Spark is an open-source distributed general-purpose cluster computing framework with (mostly) in-memory data processing engine that can do ETL, analytics, machine learning and graph processing on large volumes of data at rest (batch processing) or in motion (streaming processing) with rich concise high-level
  • Aperiodic Server
    Software that is specific to a particular embedded system. Such application-specific code is generally built on a layered architecture of reusable components, such as a real-time operating system and network protocol stack or other middleware. If there is no such architecture, then this term may not be used. The application software is unlikely to be reusable across embedded platforms, simply because each embedded system has a different application.
  • APM ( Application Performance Monitoring )
    Application performance monitoring relates to a wide range of tracking methods to determine web applications\' quality, accessibility, and consistency.
  • App Personalization
    App Personalization is the process of building a mobile app to meet the needs of specific audiences. Similar to other forms of personalization, app personalization aims to present user experiences that are customized to their specific needs, rather than a broad, one size fit alls experience for all users.
  • Application client container (ACC)
    An application client container (ACC) is a set of Java classes, libraries and other files required for application client execution which are bundled with the application client for distribution. The ACC manages the application client’s execution and uses necessary system resources to enable application-client functionality.
  • Application development environment (ADE)
    An application development environment (ADE) is the hardware, software and/or the computing resources required for building software applications. ADE is the composite set of computing resources that provides an interface or application development, testing, deployment, integration, troubleshooting and maintenance services.
  • Application stress testing
    This type of test typically focuses on more than one transaction on the system under stress, without the isolation of components. With application stress testing, you are likely to uncover defects related to data locking and blocking, network congestion, and performance bottlenecks on different components or methods across the entire application. Because the test scope is a single application, it is common to use this type of stress testing after a robust application load-testing effort, or as the last test phase for capacity planning. It is also common to find defects related to race conditions and general memory leaks from shared code or components.
  • Application Stress Testing
    This type of test typically focuses on more than one transaction on the system under stress, without the isolation of components. With application stress testing, you are likely to uncover defects related to data locking and blocking, network congestion, and performance bottlenecks on different components or methods across the entire application. Because the test scope is a single application, it is common to use this type of stress testing after a robust application load-testing effort, or as the last test phase for capacity planning. It is also common to find defects related to race conditions and general memory leaks from shared code or components.
  • Application-specific metrics
    These include custom performance counters inserted in your application code to monitor application health and identify performance issues. You might use custom counters to determine the number of concurrent threads waiting to acquire a particular lock or the number of requests queued to make an outbound call to a Web service.
  • Applicative Language
    In the classification of programming languages, an applicative programming language is designed to support the development of programs as giving the result of a function of the combined variables. Successive functional transformations are applied to data to arrive at the result
  • APRAnet
    The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network was an early packet-switching network and the first network to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet.
  • Architected rapid application development (ARAD)
    Architected rapid application development (ARAD) refers to software that uses frameworks and patterns as main elements to aid in the development of common functions of an application. ARAD is an advanced form of object-oriented analysis and design tools. It involves the use of design patterns and analysis of already created models. Organizations are widely using ARAD along with agile methodologies and practices.
  • Architecture
    e basic plan along which a computer has been constructed. Popular parallel architectures include processor arrays, bus-based multiprocessors (with caches of various sizes and structures) and disjoint memory multicomputers.
  • Area border router (ABR)
    An area border router (ABR) is a kind of router that is located near the border between one or more Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) areas. It is used to establish a connection between backbone networks and the OSPF areas. It is a member of both the main backbone network and the specific areas to which it connects, so it stores and maintains separate routing information or routing tables regarding the backbone and the topologies of the area to which it is connected.
  • Argo Smart Router
    It uses latency and packet loss data collected from each request that traverses our network to pick optimal paths across the Internet. Using this latency data, we\'re able to determine which of our transit providers are performing best between any two points on the planet
  • Arity
    In logic, mathematics, and computer science, the arity of a function or operation is the number of arguments or operands that the function takes. In mathematics, arity may also be named rank, but this word can have many other meanings in mathematics. In logic and philosophy, it is also called acidity and degree.
  • ARP
    Address Resolution Protocol : The address resolution protocol (arp) is a protocol used by the Internet Protocol (IP) [RFC826], specifically IPv4, to map IP network addresses to the hardware addresses used by a data link protocol. The protocol operates below the network layer as a part of the interface between the OSI network and OSI link layer.
  • Array Constant
    An array constant is a hard-coded set of values provided in an Excel formula. Array constants appear in curly braces {} like this: {\"red\",\"blue\",\"green\"} Array constants are often used in array formulas to create or manipulate several values at once, rather than a single value.
  • Array Processor
    In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to the scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.
  • Artificial Intelligence
    In computer science, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans.
  • ASP.NET
    ASP.NET is a unified web development model integrated with .NET framework, designed to provide services to create dynamic web applications and web services. It is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR) of the .NET framework and includes those benefits like multi-language interoperability, type safety, garbage collection and inheritance.
  • Aspect-oriented programming (AOP)
    Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is a programming paradigm that isolates the supporting functions from the main program’s business logic.
  • Assertions
    Assertions are used to perform additional checks on samplers and are processed after every sampler in the same scope. To ensure that an Assertion is applied only to a particular sampler, add it as a child of the sampler.
  • Associative Address
    A method of addressing a location by virtue of its data content rather than by its physical location. An access is made by specifying something about the contents of the desired location rather than by using a normal address.
  • Assortment
    The range of choice offered to the consumer within a particular classification of merchandise. In terms of men’s shirts, for example, it is the range of prices, styles, colors, patterns, and materials that are available for customer selection.
  • Asynchronous
    Asynchronous communication is transmission of data, generally without the use of an external clock signal, where data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream. Any timing required to recover data from the communication symbols is encoded within the symbols.
  • Asynchronous Algorithm
    In Such an algorithm all parallel processing elements move forward in lock-step synchrony. As the number of processing elements become very large , this synchronisation can become seriously Inefficient.
  • Asynchronous I/O
    In computer science, asynchronous I/O is a form of input/output processing that permits other processing to continue before the transmission has finished. Input and output operations on a computer can be extremely slow compared to the processing of data
  • Asynchronous Message Passing
    Asynchronous Message Passing is the receiving object can be down or busy when the requesting object sends the message. Continuing the function call analogy, it is like a function call that returns immediately, without waiting for the called function to complete.
  • ASynchronous Transfer Mode
    Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a switching technique used by telecommunication networks that uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing to encode data into small, fixed-sized cells. This is different from Ethernet or internet, which use variable packet sizes for data or frames.
  • Atomicity
    The property of a transaction that guarantees that either all or none of the changes made by the transaction are written to the database.
  • Attached Vector Process
    A specialised processor for vector computations, designed to be connected to a general purpose host processor. The host processor supplies I/O functions, a file system and other aspects of a computing system environment.
  • Attribution Theory
    Attribution Theory is a field of psychology which deals with the process by which individuals arrive at explanations for events. Typically, it includes an examination of the quantity and type of information gathered and how this information is combined to form a causal judgment. This theory is often applied to understanding brand preference and purchase behavior
  • Audience Duplication
    Audience duplication refers to the total number of persons or households exposed more than once to the same media vehicle or to a particular advertising campaign during a specified period of time.
  • Augmented Product
    Augmented product is the view of a product that includes not only its core benefit and its physical being, but adds other sources of benefits such as service, warranty, and image. The augmented aspects are added to the physical product by action of the seller, e.g., with company reputation or with service
  • Authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA)
    Authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) is a system for tracking user activities on an IP-based network and controlling their access to network resources. AAA is often is implemented as a dedicated server. This term is also referred to as the AAA Protocol.
  • Authoritative nameserver
    The authoritative nameserver is the last stop in the nameserver query. If the authoritative name server has access to the requested record, it will return the IP address for the requested hostname back to the DNS Recursor (the librarian) that made the initial request.
  • Authority Site
    An authority site is a very high quality website that is respected by knowledgeable people in its industry. It is a website that has content on it that is so good and makes the site so useful that people are actually glad they landed on it and want to share it with their friends. Authority sites publish trustworthy information and link to other trustworthy places on the web.
  • Automatic Vectorization
    A compiler that takes code written in a serial language (often Fortran or C) and translates it into vector instructions. The vector instructions may be machine specific or in a source form such as array extensions or as subroutine calls to a vector library.
  • Auxiliary Memory
    Memory that is usually large, in capacity, but slow and inexpensive, often a rotating magnetic or optical memory, whose main function is to store large volumes of data and programs not being actively used by the processors.
  • Average
    A mean or average response time is the sum of individual response time divided by the number of responses.
  • Average application Response Time
    Average Response Time refers to the amount of time the application server takes to return the results of a request to the user response time is affected by factors such as network bandwidth, number of users, number and type of requests submitted, and average think time.
  • AVL Tree
    In computer science, an AVL tree is a self-balancing binary search tree. It was the first such data structure to be invented. In an AVL tree, the heights of the two child subtrees of any node differ by at most one; if at any time they differ by more than one, rebalancing is done to restore this property.
  • AWS DeepRacer
    AWS DeepRacer is a machine learning project from Amazon that focuses on the development of autonomous racing vehicles on a small scale. Described as a global racing league, AWS DeepRacer allows users to get hands-on experience with machine learning through building cars and working on simulators as well as participating in the world\'s first autonomous racing league.
  • B tree
    In computer science, a B-tree is a self-balancing tree data structure that maintains sorted data and allows searches, sequential access, insertions, and deletions in logarithmic time. The B-tree is a generalization of a binary search tree in that a node can have more than two children.
  • B8ZS
    Bipolar with eight zero substitution, a line code used for T1 which converts any string of 8 zeros of a DS-1 signal into a code which at the far end is converted back to eight zeros. The coding actually inserts BPVs that are realized at the next multiplexer point and that taken out of the signal.
  • Backbone
    An Internet backbone refers to one of the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected networks and core routers on the Internet. A network backbone is a part of computer network infrastructure that interconnects various pieces of network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or subnetworks.
  • Backdoor
    A backdoor is a technique in which a system security mechanism is bypassed undetectably to access a computer or its data. The backdoor access method is sometimes written by the programmer who develops a program. A backdoor is also known as a trapdoor.
  • Backend as a service (BaaS)
    Backend as a service (BaaS) is a cloud computing service model that serves as the middleware that provides developers with ways to connect their Web and mobile applications to cloud services via application programming interfaces (API) and software developers\' kits (SDK). Compared to other service models in the cloud computing environment, BaaS is rather new and there is a limited number of available providers. Backend as a service is also known as mobile backend as a service (MBaas)
  • Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS):
    Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) is a component of Microsoft Windows available starting with Windows 2000 which allows transfer of files between server and client, and the download of files from peers as well. Recent versions of Microsoft Update, Windows Update, Microsoft Systems Management Server and Windows Server Update Services use Background Intelligent Transfer Service to deliver the application updates to clients.
  • Backlink
    It is also known as an inbound link. Suppose website A contains a hyperlink that directs to website B. For website B, that hyperlink is a backlink.
  • Backside bus (BSB)
    A backside bus (BSB) is an internal bus that connects the central processing unit to the cache memory, such as Level 2 (L2) and Level 3 (L3) cache. The CPU often stores memory in the cache. Here it stores data that is frequently used and needs to be promptly retrieved. Prior to the BSB, computers used the single bus system, which was much slower and often created bottlenecks. The BSB improved CPUcommunication with cache memory by reducing general signals and eliminating excess procedures. Today, most PCs integrate L2 and L3 cache into the CPU, making BSB obsolete.
  • Backspace (BKSP)
    The backspace key is a key found on most keyboards, typewriters and virtual keyboard interfaces. The backspace key originated on the typewriter. In modern computer systems, backspace deletes the character to the left of the cursor and shifts all text after that point by one position.
  • Backus Normal Form (BNF)
    Backus Normal Form (BNF) is a metasyntactic notation procedure used to specify the syntax of computer programming languages, command/instruction sets, document formatting and communication protocols. BNF is applied when language descriptions are required. BNF is also known as Backus-Naur form.
  • Balanced scorecard
    An integrated framework for describing strategy through the use of linked performance measures in four, balanced perspectives ‐ Financial, Customer, Internal Process, and Employee Learning and Growth. The Balanced Scorecard acts as a measurement system, strategic management system, and communication tool.
  • Banded Matrix
    A matrix in which the non-zero elements are clustered around the main diagonal. If all the non-zero elements in the matrix are within m columns of the main diagonal, then the bandwidth of the matrix is 2m+1.
  • Bandwidth
    When you choose to aggregate CSS and JavaScript files, “Bandwidth Optimization” groups both in bundles in order to reduce the number of HTTP requests, which is necessary for the page to load. Instead of loading a couple dozens of files, the page will load with just a handful of aggregates.
  • Bandwidth on demand (BOND)
    Bandwidth on demand (BOND) is a data communication method which provides additional capacity to accommodate traffic demands. It is mostly used in wide area networks (WANs) and dial-up lines, and helps in delivering flexible, customized connectivity for meeting the needs of the user\'s data demands. Most telephone companies as well network providers provide bandwidth on demand as part of their offering. Bandwidth on demand provides flexibility as well as scalability to data centers as well as for multi-cloud deployments. It is mostly used for short-term needs. Bandwidth on demand is also known as dynamic bandwidth allocation.
  • Bandwidth shaping
    Bandwidth shaping is the process of allocating parts of network connections as well as establishing bandwidth usage amounts that correspond to activity types. As it relates to ISPs, the term refers to the limitations they set to manage the amount of bandwidth individual consumers use so that no one user can obtain a disproportionate amount of control over the Internet gateway. Bandwidth shaping is also referred to as bandwidth allocation, bandwidth allocation tool, bandwidth management and traffic shaping.
  • Bandwidth test
    A bandwidth test measures the maximum bandwidth of a network or an internet connection. The figure obtained from the bandwidth test is usually represented in megabytes per second or kilobytes per second. Bandwidth test results could vary from time to time, and depend on many factors. However, it can give a theoretical figure for an average bandwidth speed for any network or internet connection.
  • Bandwidth throttling
    Bandwidth throttling is the intentional slowing or speeding of an internet service by an Internet service provider (ISP). It is a reactive measure employed in communication networks to regulate network traffic and minimize bandwidth congestion. Bandwidth throttling can occur at different locations on the network. On a local area network (LAN), a system administrator (\"sysadmin\") may employ bandwidth throttling to help limit network congestion and server crashes. On a broader level, the Internet service provider may use bandwidth throttling to help reduce a user\'s usage of bandwidth that is supplied to the local network. Bandwidth throttling is also used to speed up the Internet on speed test websites.
  • Bank
    The area of a motherboard that contains slots for memory modules. Memory banks are typically double sided (allowing for single- or double-sided memory modules), and the banks in the slots are numbered. Memory banks are organized into units representing the minimum number of memory chips that must work in tandem.
  • Bank Conflict
    A bank \"busy-wait\" situation. Memory chip speeds are relatively slow when required to deliver a single word, so supercomputer memories are placed in a large number of independent banks . A vector of data laid out contiguously in memory with one component per successive bank, can be accessed at one word per cycle through the use of pipelined delivery of vector-component words at high bandwidth.
  • Bank Cycle Time
    The time, measured in clock cycles, taken by a memory bank between the honoring of one request to fetch or store a data item and accepting another such request. On most supercomputers this value is either four or eight clock cycles.
  • Banker Trojan
    A banker Trojan is a piece of malware intended to get financial information or hack users through a banking or financial system, commonly through an online banking or brokerage interface.
  • Barrier
    In constrained optimization, a field of mathematics, a barrier function is a continuous function whose value on a point increases to infinity as the point approaches the boundary of the feasible region of an optimization problem.
  • Barrier Synchronization
    An event in which two or more processes belonging to some implicit or explicit group block until all members of the group have blocked. They may then all proceed. No member of the group may pass a barrier until all processes in the group have reached it.
  • Base Processor
    The faster your processor runs, the more power it requires and the more heat it generates. Take, for example, the Intel® Core™ i7-5820K. It\'s a 6-core CPU with a base clock speed of 3.3 GHz and Turbo Boost speed of 3.6 GHz. ... Basic tasks don\'t need a 3.6 GHz processor to run.
  • base URL
    In web development, design applications can define a base URL or base location, which helps in converting relative web URLs on the specific page to absolute web URLs. The HTML element allows a base URL for use for all relative URLs within a specific document. A base URL is one of the consistent components of the web address as far a web page is concerned.
  • Baseline
    In configuration management, a \"baseline\" is an agreed description of the attributes of a product, at a point in time, which serves as a basis for defining change. A change is a movement from this baseline state to a next state.
  • Baseline testing
    Creating a baseline is the process of running a set of tests to capture performance metric data for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of subsequent performance-improving changes to the system or application. A critical aspect of a baseline is that all characteristics and configuration options except those specifically being varied for comparison must remain invariant. Once a part of the system that is not intentionally being varied for comparison to the baseline is changed, the baseline measurement is no longer a valid basis for comparison.
  • Basic Block
    Basic block is a straight-line code sequence with no branches in except to the entry and no branches out except at the exit. This restricted form makes a basic block highly amenable to analysis. Compilers usually decompose programs into their basic blocks as a first step in the analysis process. Basic blocks form the vertices or nodes in a control flow graph.
  • Basic input/output system (BIOS)
    A basic input/output system (BIOS) is a pre installed program used during startup on Windows-based computers. The CPU initially accesses the BIOS, after which the operating system is loaded. A basic input/output system is also known as system BIOS or ROM BIOS.
  • Basic Linear Algebra Software (BLAS)
    It prescribes a set of low level routines for performing common linear algebra operations such as vector addition, scalar multiplication, dot products, linear combinations and matrix multiplication. BLAS implementation are often optimized for Speed on a particular machine.
  • Basket Recovery
    With Abandoned Cart Recovery, you can automatically send reminders to customers who add products to their cart and leave without completing an order. The email is automatically sent 24 hours after a cart or checkout is abandoned so you can stay in touch while your store is still fresh in shoppers\' minds .
  • Batch Search
    Batch search strategy is part of the batch determination process used to define how the SAP system can best search and identify a batch or batches of material or product given defined criteria
  • Bayesian
    Bayesian is a probability concept that interprets probability as a degree of belief. In A/B testing, Bayesian probability offers an absolute level of a test result\'s validity.
  • Bdflush
    The bdflush kernel daemon is a simple kernel daemon that provides a dynamic response to the system having too many dirty buffers; buffers which contain data which must be written out to disk at some time. If there are too many as a percentage of the total number of buffers in the system then bdflush is woken up.
  • Beep code
    A beep code is a type of signal provided by a personal computer during the boot process. Most beep codes are related to a power on self test (POST), where a beep code helps show end-users that there is a hardware problem preventing normal operation.
  • Beginner\'s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC)
    Beginner\'s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) is a high-level and simple programming language that was introduced May 1, 1964. Although it is no longer a major programming language, BASIC is primarily used as a tool for teaching fundamental programming principles.
  • Behavioral Targeting
    Behavioral targeting is a technique in advertising, whereby an ad is placed in a specific online location based on the behavior of the users who spend time at that location. This tool is primarily used by advertisers and marketing managers in order to improve the effectiveness of their ads.
  • Below the fold
    This term is a carry-over from newspaper publishing days. In newspaper terms, “below the fold” means content was on the bottom half of the page (below the physical fold in the paper). In web design terms, “below the fold” refers to the content that is generally going to be below the point first viewable to the average website visitor in their browser (in other words, viewers would have to scroll down to see the content).
  • Benchmark
    Measurements that indicate a specific performance metric and allows comparison of metrics between like applications, websites, or companies
  • Benchmark testing
    Benchmarking is the process of comparing your system’s performance against a baseline that you have created internally or against an industry standard endorsed by some other organization.
  • Benchmarking Performance
    To set objectives for a WPO initiative, many businesses benchmark their web performance against other web applications, particularly rivals. The concept is that there is no universal \"magic\" figure or measure, defining quality performance — only by analysing the present situation can it be evaluated.
  • Bernstein’s Condition
    A sufficient condition for the independence of two sections of a program a. If Ri(Wi) is the set of variables read(written) by a section of code i, then Bernstein\'s Condition states that sections i and j may be executed in an arbitrary order, or concurrently if: there is no true dependence, output dependence or interdependence among the statements in the sections.
  • Bi-CMOS
    BiCMOS technology is a combination of Bipolar and CMOS technology. CMOS technology offers less power dissipation, smaller noise margins, and higher packing density…… the primary approach to realize high performance BiCMOS devices is the addition of bipolar process steps to a baseline CMOS process.
  • Big Data
    \"Big data\" is a term used to describe data sets that are difficult to process without scalable, distributed computing power. These data sets are increasingly common given the vast data collection capabilities of search engines, the growing number of real-time inputs, and tracking of behavioral information.
  • Big data analytics platform
    A big data analytics platform helps in extracting the value out of data. Data is only useful when beneficial business outcomes can be derived from it, and in order to extract the valuables from data, proper measures need to be adopted. One needs to measure data from the business point of view and realize its potential. For this to happen, a big data analytics platform is needed.
  • Big data architecture
    Big data architecture is the logical and/or physical layout/structure of how big data is stored, accessed and managed within a big data or IT environment. It logically defines how the big data solution will work, the core components (hardware, database, software, storage) used, flow of information, security and more.
  • Big data as a service (BDaaS)
    Big data as a service (BDaaS) is a term typically used to refer to services that offer analysis of large or complex data sets, usually over the Internet, as cloud hosted services. Similar types of services include software as a service (SaaS) or infrastructure as a service (IaaS), where specific big data as a service options are used to help businesses handle what the IT world calls big data, or sophisticated aggregated data sets that provide a lot of value for today’s companies.
  • Big Endian
    A data representation for a multibyte value that has the most significant byte stored at the lowest memory address. Note that only the bytes are reordered, never the nibbles or bits that comprise them. Every processor stores its data in either big-endian.
  • Binary large object (BLOB)
    A binary large object (BLOB) is a data type that can store binary objects or data. Binary large objects are used in databases to store binary data such as images, multimedia files and executable software code. A binary large object may also be known as a basic large object.
  • Binary Semaphore
    Semaphores which allow an arbitrary resource count are called counting semaphores, while semaphores which are restricted to the values 0 and 1 are called binary semaphores and are used to implement locks.
  • Binder
    Binder is an open logic based security language. It encodes security statements, making them components of distributed logic programs to express security statements in a distributed system.
  • Bisection Bandwidth
    In Computer Networking, if the network is bisected into two partitions, the bisection bandwidth of a network topology is the bandwidth available between the two partitions. Bisection should be done in such a way that the bandwidth between two partitions is minimum.
  • Bit Addressable
    Bit-addressable objects are objects that may be addressed as words or as bits. Only data objects that occupy the bit-addressable area of the 8051 internal memory fall into this category.
  • Bit block transfer
    A bit block transfer is a procedure to transfer blocks of memory, often in the form of visual pixels, between destinations. The term goes back to the 1970s and the use of this sort of routine for sending bitmap graphics in blocks. For example, A bit block transfer process may be used to render sprites onto a visual background. A bit block transfer is also known as bit blit, BLT or BITBLT.
  • Bit error rate (BER)
    The bit error rate (BER) of a transmission is the percentage of bits in the transmission that have errors as a result of noise, interference or other issues. The bit error rate can be used to determine the quality of a signal and the relative success of packet delivery. It can be an essential part of examining different types of systems for quality and efficacy.
  • Bit rate
    Bit rate refers to the rate at which data is processed or transferred. It is usually measured in seconds, ranging from bps for smaller values to kbps and mbps. Bit rate is also known as bitrate or data rate.
  • Bitmap (BMP)
    Bitmap (BMP) is an image file format that can be used to create and store computer graphics. A bitmap file displays a small dots in a pattern that, when viewed from afar, creates an overall image. A bitmap image is a grid made of rows and columns where a specific cell is given a value that fills it in or leaves it blank, thus creating an image out of the data.
  • Bitonic Merge
    Bitonic merge sort is a parallel algorithm for sorting. It is also used as a construction method for building a sorting network. The algorithm was devised by Ken Batcher. The resulting sorting networks consist of comparators and have a delay of, where is the number of items to be sorted.
  • Bitonic Sequence
    A Bitonic Sequence is a sequence of numbers which is first strictly increasing then after a point strictly decreasing. A Bitonic Point is a point in bitonic sequence before which elements are strictly increasing and after which elements are strictly decreasing.
  • Black Box
    Black-box testing is a method of software testing that examines the functionality of an application without peering into its internal structures or workings. This method of test can be applied virtually to every level of software testing: unit, integration, system and acceptance.
  • Blackhat
    Black hat SEO is a practice against search engine guidelines, used to get a site ranking higher in search results. These unethical tactics don\'t solve for the searcher and often end in a penalty from search engines. Black hat techniques include keyword stuffing, cloaking, and using private link networks.
  • Blended threat
    A blended threat is a type of exploit that uses multiple techniques to attack a system. The definition is broad, but this generally means propogating in multiple ways as well as attempting to use multiple vulnerabilities in the target system.
  • Blind drop
    A blind drop is a hidden location where a malware program, Trojan or virus drops information gathered from a host. The automatically gathered data remains in that location until it is retrieved by the attacker. The data could be a credit card or bank account details, usernames and passwords or any personal information the attacker may use to hack into the host\'s accounts. It is very hard to detect where data is coming from or where it is going, even if the location is discovered.
  • Block
    In Computer Language, a block or code is a lexical structure of source code which is grouped together. Blocks is a free C, C++ and Fortran IDE built to meet the most demanding needs of its users. It is designed to be very extensible and fully configurable. Finally an IDE with all the features you need, having a consistent look, fee and operations across platforms
  • Block Device Interface
    Devices that support a file system are known as block devices. ... Block device drivers can also provide a character driver interface that allows utility programs to bypass the file system and access the device directly. This device access is commonly referred to as the raw interface to a block device.
  • Block error rate (BLER)
    Block error rate (BLER) is a quantitative measure of how well audio is retained in a compact disc (CD) over a period of time. It is used to measure the error rate at the time of extracting data frames from a CD. The BLER is the ratio of total erroneous blocks to that of total number of blocks received in a digital circuit. Block error rate is also known as block error ratio.
  • Block Size
    A block can be thought of as a bundle of transactions, with each transaction needing to be validated before it can be accepted by the network. Each block has what is known as a block size. The block size is simply the maximum limit a block can be filled up with transactions. However, if a block that exceeds the block size limit is submitted, it will be rejected by the network. The intention of a block size is to prevent denial-of-service attacks on the network. If there was no block size limit, in theory, an attacker could flood the network with lots of transactions, therefore potentially bringing the network to a halt.
  • Blockers
    A so-called website blocker is something that prevents search engines from accessing the site. As a result the website cannot be included in the search engine index and will not appear in the search results. For example, if an entire website is password protected, search engines will be denied access.
  • Blueline
    Blueline is a print made on light-sensitive paper and used as a proof for checking the position of stripped-up negatives or positives and copy prior to platemaking.
  • Boost libraries
    Boost libraries consist of a set of over 80 libraries for the C++ programming language. The libraries are available for free and can be used for both free and proprietary software projects. Boost supports a number of tasks and structures such as unit testing, image processing, multithreading, pseudorandom number generation, linear algebra and regular expressions.
  • Boot disk
    A boot disk is a removable data storage medium used to load and boot an operating system or utility program. Typically, a boot disc is a read-only medium that stores temporary files on a CD-ROM or floppy disc drive. Other boot disk mediums include USB drives, zip drives, and paper tape drives. One of the most common uses of a boot disk is to start the computer when operating on the internal hard drive does not load. Generally, a boot disk contains a full-scale operating system, and may include a small utility operating system as well. In recent years, boot disks have become less common as original equipment manufacturers turn to using hard drive partitions to store recovery data. A boot disk may also be referred to as a bootable diskette, startup disk, bootable disk or bootable rescue disk.
  • Boot loader
    A boot loader is a type of program that loads and starts the boot time tasks and processes of an operating system or the computer system. It enables loading the operating system within the computer memory when a computer is started or booted up. A boot loader is also known as a boot manager or bootstrap loader.
  • Boot sector
    A boot sector is a reserved sector of a disk or storage device that contains the necessary data or code used to complete the boot process of a computer or disk. A boot sector is also known as a boot block.
  • Boot sector virus
    A boot sector virus is a computer virus that infects a storage device\'s master boot record (MBR). It is not mandatory that a boot sector virus successfully boot the victim\'s PC to infect it. As a result, even non-bootable media can trigger the spread of boot sector viruses. These viruses copy their infected code either to the floppy disk\'s boot sector or to the hard disk\'s partition table. During start-up, the virus gets loaded to the computer\'s memory. As soon as the virus is saved to the memory, it infects the non-infected disks used by the system. The propagation of boot sector viruses has become very rare since the decline of floppy disks. Also, present-day operating systems include boot-sector safeguards that make it difficult for boot sector viruses to infect them.
  • Boot sequence
    Boot sequence is the order in which a computer searches for nonvolatile data storage devices containing program code to load the operating system (OS). Typically, a Macintosh structure uses ROM and Windows uses BIOS to start the boot sequence. Once the instructions are found, the CPU takes control and loads the OS into system memory. The devices that are usually listed as boot order options in the BIOS settings are hard disks, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, etc. The user is able to change the boot sequence via the CMOS setup. Boot sequence is also called as boot order or BIOS boot order.
  • Boot sequence
    Boot sequence is the order in which a computer searches for nonvolatile data storage devices containing program code to load the operating system (OS). Typically, a Macintosh structure uses ROM and Windows uses BIOS to start the boot sequence. Once the instructions are found, the CPU takes control and loads the OS into system memory. The devices that are usually listed as boot order options in the BIOS settings are hard disks, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, etc. The user is able to change the boot sequence via the CMOS setup. Boot sequence is also called as boot order or BIOS boot order.
  • Border Gateway Protocol
    Border gateway protocol is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems on the internet. The protocol is classified as path vector protocol.
  • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP )
    Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is classified as a path vector protocol.The Border Gateway Protocol makes routing decisions based on path, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions. BGP may be used for routing within an autonomous system.
  • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
    Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a routing protocol used to transfer data and information between different host gateways, the Internet or autonomous systems. BGP is a Path Vector Protocol (PVP), which maintains paths to different hosts, networks and gateway routers and determines the routing decision based on that. It does not use Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) metrics for routing decisions, but only decides the route based on path, network policies and rule sets. Sometimes, BGP is described as a reachability protocol rather than routing protocol.
  • Botnet
    A botnet relates to a set of malware-infected computers that have been controlled by a malicious actor.
  • Bounce Rate
    Bounce rate is the percentage of all web app visitors who leave after only one page view. High bounce rates are a sign that the performance of your website is slow or that your content does not meet the expectations of the user.
  • Boundary Value Swapping
    A technique used when performing calculations on a mesh on which geometric decomposition has been used. During a boundary value swap, each process exchanges values on the edges of its tile or tiles for the complementary values of its neighbours.
  • Boxtop
    A boxtop, in the context of being a proof of purchase, is understood to be the upper portion of a product box, detached, and mailed as part of a claim for a radio premium or other advertising offer.
  • Braille and Audio Reading Download (BARD)
    Braille and Audio Reading Download (BARD) is a web library service consisting of braille books, magazines, articles and recordings for U.S. residents who are otherwise unable to read or make use of printed material due to their physical or visual disabilities. Provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped and Library of Congress in collaboration with networks of regional and sub-regional libraries, the service is free for all qualified members.
  • Branded Keyword
    Branded keywords are used by searchers that have already heard of your brand or business through other marketing efforts and are looking for a website for more information. The primary goal of an SEO campaign is to improve traffic from an audience that hasn’t yet heard of the brand or business (using non-branded keywords) however it is still important to include branded keywords in the mix, especially on interior “About Us” type pages so that searchers using branded keywords can easily access the correct page.
  • Breadcrumb Navigation
    Breadcrumb Navigation is a form of site navigation that shows visitors where they are on a site\'s hierarchy of pages without having to examine a URL structure. Ecommerce stores with a large number of categories can simplify the user experience by displaying breadcrumbs.
  • Breadcrumbs
    Breadcrumbs are the bit of navigation elements that generally appear near the top of a given web page that shows you the pages and subpages appear before the page you’re on. For example, on a blog, the breadcrumbs might look something like: Home > Category > Year > Month > Post (or they might be a lot simpler that that).
  • Break Bulk
    Break-bulk is the process of dividing larger quantities into smaller quantities in the transportation-warehousing system as goods get closer to the final market.
  • Bricking
    Bricking refers to a consumer electronic device that has been damaged beyond repair, making it utterly unusable, often because of damaged firmware. The use of the term stems from the brick-like shape of many consumer gadgets, and the fact that once they are rendered inoperative, they are virtually useless except as a paperweight or a doorstop. Strictly speaking, a device is bricked when it completely loses its functionality. However, the term is being used with more flexibility these days, and in some cases, bricked electronics are still recoverable with some hardware replacement or additional software.
  • Bridge
    A network bridge is a computer networking device that creates a single aggregate network from multiple communication networks of networks segments. This function is called network bridging. Bridging is distinct form routing . In the OSI model , bridging is performed in the data link layer.
  • Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN)
    BISDN is both a concept and a set of services and developing standards for integrating digital transmission services in a broadband network of fibre optic and ratio media. BISDN will encompass frame relay services for high-speed data that can be sent in large bursts. BISDN will support transmission from 2 Mbps up to much higher, but as yet unspecified, rate.
  • Broadcast
    broadcasting is the process of sending data packets to multiple recipients all at once. For instance, a local area network can be configured so that any device on the network can broadcast a message to all the others. ... The group of eligible devices is called a broadcast domain
  • Broken Links
    A defective link is a link that has no object or does not lead to anything. Causes for defective links include programming errors, temporarily unavailable websites or if the address of the site connected to by a link has changed. Defective links diminish the quality of a website and make the job of the crawler more difficult. For these reasons a website with defective links will appear lower down in search results.
  • Brouter (Bridge Router)
    A bridge router or brouter is a network device that works as a bridge and as a router. The router routes packets for known protocols and simply forwards all other packets as a bridge would. Brouters operate at both the network layer for routable protocols and at the data link layer for non-routable protocols.
  • Browser Caching
    Browser caching is a technique that temporarily stores, part or most of the recently used Web pages and data in a Web browser. It is used by local downloading web page parts in the browser cache to boost the browsing velocity of a user.
  • Browser compatibility
    Browser compatibility is the capability or flexibility of a website, web application, script or HTML design to function on different web browsers available in the market. The benefit of creating a website with browser computability is that it improves a website\'s reach and cuts down on loss in performance. Browser compatibility also can be described as the potential of a web browser to efficiently display the HTML code and carry out the scripts on web pages.
  • Browser isolation
    Browser isolation is a cutting-edge idea in cybersecurity that consists of maintaining browser operations away from a bare-metal environment or intermediate server hardware system, in order to provide barriers against malware, viruses and other threats. With browser isolation, the user\'s browser session is abstracted away from direct internet access – that allows all sorts of harmful activity to be trapped at an exterior level, and never penetrate the inside of a local area network or other network atmosphere.
  • Browser modifier
    A browser modifier is a type of malware created for the sole purpose of hijacking and modifying a Web browser’s settings. Browser modifiers are installed when users inadvertently click pop-up messages without reading the content that explains how to cancel the pop-up. This term is also known as a browser hijacker, although the latter may refer to malware with more malicious, rather than mischievous, intentions.
  • Brute force attack
    A brute force attack is a technique of decoding sensitive information using trial-and-error. What distinguishes brute force attacks from other cracking techniques is that brute force attacks do not use an intellectual strategy ; they merely attempt to use distinct character types until the right combination is discovered.
  • BSD licenses
    BSD licenses are a family of permissive free software licenses, imposing minimal restrictions on the use and distribution of covered software. This is in contrast to copyleft licenses, which have share-alike requirements. The original BSD license was used for its namesake, the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix-like operating system. The original version has since been revised, and its descendants are referred to as modified BSD licenses.
  • BSS
    Business support systems are the components that a telecommunications service provider uses to run its business operations towards customers. Together with operations support systems, they are used to support various end-to-end telecommunication services. BSS and OSS have their own data and service responsibilities
  • Bucketing
    Bucketing is a situation where, in an attempt to make a short-term profit, a broker confirms an order to a client without actually executing it. The broker will tell the client the order is executed and quote them a price. Then, the broker will attempt to execute the price in the open market at a more favorable price than was quoted to the client. The broker pockets the difference for a profit. A brokerage which engages in unscrupulous activities, such as bucketing, is often referred to as a bucket shop.
  • Buffer
    In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another. However, a buffer may be used when moving data between processes within a computer.
  • Buffer Cache
    Buffer Cache is where data blocks are copied to perform SQL operations. Buffer Cache is shared memory structure and it is concurrently accessed by all server processes.
  • Buffer Flushing Daemon
    A buffer flush is the transfer of computer data from a temporary storage area to the computer\'s permanent memory. Here\'s one example of a buffer flush: When you make changes in a Word document, the changes you see on your computer screen are stored temporarily in a buffer
  • Buffered Message Passing
    Buffering of Messages. A message sent by a process needs to be kept in some memory area until the receiving machine has received it. ... Similarly, a message must be buffered in the receiver\'s machine until a process receives it. This buffering must be provided by the operating system.
  • Bugbear
    Bugbear is a 2002 virus that has been responsible for thousands of cases of virus hacking that involve exploiting Microsoft Outlook and Outlook Express to install a keylogger on personal and business computers. This is one of several similar viruses that enters the computer through an attachment to an email. Bugbear is also known as Tanatos.
  • Bundle protocol
    Bundle protocol is an experimental disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) protocol designed for unstable communications networks. It groups data blocks into bundles and transmits them using a store-and-forward technique. Bundle protocols connect multiple subnets into a single network. They provide a custody-based retransmission service and store data for long periods. The signal retransmitter guarantees packet delivery. As such, they can easily cope with Internet connectivity issues such as bandwidth delays and breakups. Bundle protocol is specified as RFC5050.
  • Burn-in test
    In computer testing, a burn-in test is a type of test where a computer, device or component is run for an extended length of time in order to identify any potential problems. It aims to reveal any problems or defects within a system by operating it in the most rigorous, extreme or extended working conditions.
  • Burst mode
    Burst mode is a temporary high-speed data transmission mode used to facilitate sequential data transfer at maximum throughput. Burst mode data transfer rate (DTR) speeds can be approximately two to five times faster than normal transmission protocols. Different types of devices employ a burst mode, including random access memory (RAM), hard drive interfaces and accelerated graphics ports. Burst mode functionality is device-dependent, and does not require input from other devices.
  • Bus mastering
    Bus mastering is a bus architecture feature that allows a control bus to communicate directly with other components without having to go through the CPU. Most up-to-date bus architectures, like the peripheral component interconnect (PCI), support bus mastering. Bus mastering increases the operating system\'s data transfer rate, conserves system resources and boosts performance and response time.
  • Business add-in (BADI)
    A business add-in (BADI) is a source code plug-in provided by SAP to enhance existing ABAP code. The enhancement technique uses the object-oriented method and business add-ins to map the specific requirements involved in business process. These are customer specific, and are not provided by standard code in SAP. BADIs allow the system landscape to be multilevel (country-specific, industry-specific, partner-specific, customer-specific, etc.) and hence accommodate a wider range of solutions without affecting the original source code of the object.
  • Business metrics
    These metrics are indicators of business-related information, such as the number of orders placed in a given timeframe.
  • Busy Waiting
    In computer science and software engineering, busy-waiting, busy-looping or spinning is a technique in which a process repeatedly checks to see if a condition is true, such as whether keyboard input or a lock is available.
  • Butterfly
    A butterfly network is a technique to link multiple computers into a high-speed network. This form of multistage interconnection network topology can be used to connect different nodes in a multiprocessor system.
  • Buy Side Optimizer
    Demand-side platform (DSP), also called buy-side optimizer and buy-side platform, has been simply defined in this manner: “a piece of software used to purchase advertising in an automated fashion. DSPs are most often used by advertisers and agencies to help them buy display, video, mobile and search ads. These complex technology platforms provide centralized and aggregated media buying from multiple sources including ad exchanges, ad networks, and sell-side platforms, often leveraging real time bidding capabilities of these sources.For more information, see the Wikipedia entry on “Demand-side platform.”
  • Buyer Persona
    A fictional, generalized representation of a company’s target audience. Buyer personas are used to guide content, product and service packaging creation, by clearly outlining a target audience’s needs, particularities and defining characteristics.
  • Bypass airflow
    Bypass airflow refers to a conditioned air leak that prevents properly conditioned air (usually cooled or temperature controlled air) from reaching specific computer parts. Leaking air may escape through cabling holes, under cabinets in ceilings or through wall openings or holes.
  • Bytes Per Second (BPS)
    Byte Per Second is equal to 8 bits per second contains 8 bits. A second is the SI base unit of time.
  • Cache Consistency
    In computer architecture, cache coherence is the uniformity of shared resource data that ends up stored in multiple local caches. When clients in a system maintain caches of a common memory resource, problems may arise with incoherent data, which is particularly the case with CPUs in a multiprocessing system
  • Cache Control
    Cache-control is an HTTP header used to specify browser caching policies in both client requests and server responses. Policies include how a resource is cached, where it’s cached and its maximum age before expiring
  • Cache cramming
    Cache cramming is the process of making a computer execute a malicious file that would otherwise be restricted. It executes a small program in the browser cache that enables hackers/crackers to locally sniff open ports and/or access target computers.
  • Cache engine
    A cache server is a dedicated network server or service acting as a server that saves Web pages or other Internet content locally. By placing previously requested information in temporary storage, or cache, a cache server both speeds up access to data and reduces demand on an enterprise\'s bandwidth. Cache servers also allow users to access content offline, including rich media files or other documents. A cache server is sometimes called a \"cache engine.\"
  • Cache Hit
    A cache hit is a state in which data requested for processing by a component or application is found in the cache memory. It is a faster means of delivering data to the processor, as the cache already contains the requested data.
  • Cache Hit Rates
    The percentage of accesses that result in cache hits is known as the hit rate or hit ratio of the cache. The alternative situation, when the cache is checked and found not to contain any entry with the desired tag, is known as a cache miss. This requires a more expensive access of data from the backing store.
  • Cache Miss
    Cache miss is a state where the data requested for processing by a component or application is not found in the cache memory. It causes execution delays by requiring the program or application to fetch the data from other cache levels or the main memory.
  • Cache Poisoning
    DNS Cache Poisoning occurs when the legitimate IP address of a Web site is replaced with a fraudulent IP address, resulting in end users who log on to a targeted Web site being taken instead to a different, often malicious Web site even though they typed the correct address into their browser.
  • Caching
    Caching is the method by which information is stored in a cache. A cache is a high-speed data storage layer that holds a typically temporary sub-set of information so that future requests for that information are serviced quicker than possible by accessing the primary storage place of the data.
  • Call Relay
    The Relay cache acts as a middleman between the client application and the Relay system. The cache is a Java object that must be instantiated by client applications. When instantiated, the Relay cache object connects to a Relay server, starts a Listener thread, and registers the client application as an observer of the cache\'s data.
  • Campaign Scheduling
    Campaign scheduling is a feature that allows the user to start/pause campaigns automatically for certain periods of time. For example, a test campaign that should run only on a specific day of the week. This does not apply to always-on features like Heatmaps and Recordings.
  • Canonical URL
    A canonical link element is an HTML element that helps webmasters prevent duplicate content issues in search engine optimization by specifying the \"canonical\" or \"preferred\" version of a web page. It is described in RFC 6596, which went live in April 2012.
  • Capacity
    The capacity of a system is the total workload it can handle without violating predetermined key performance acceptance criteria.
  • Capacity testing
    A capacity test complements load testing by determining your server’s ultimate failure point, whereas load testing monitors result at various levels of load and traffic patterns. You perform capacity testing in conjunction with capacity planning, which you use to plan for future growth, such as an increased user base or increased volume of data. For example, to accommodate future loads, you need to know how many additional resources (such as processor capacity, memory usage, disk capacity, or network bandwidth) are necessary to support future usage levels. Capacity testing helps you to identify a scaling strategy in order to determine whether you should scale up or scale out.
  • Cascade
    The word cascade conjures up a vision of anything falling in a manner resembling a waterfall think of a cascade of shining hair, a sudden cascade of tears, or the cascade of light during a meteor shower. The idea behind the word is of something falling in a progressive manner or a series of steps.
  • Case Attribute
    Case attributes are characteristics of a business case and describe it in more detail. Each case has one or more attributes, whereby the attribute values can vary from case to case. Examples of case attributes are specific IT systems or persons responsible.
  • Casual Interference
    Causal inference is a process by which a causal connection is established based on evidence.Causal inference of the frequentist kind shifts the burden of proof on the person arguing for the null hypothesis to the extent to which the data contradicts it, thus data takes central position in the decision-making process
  • ccTLD (Country Code Top Level Domain)
    A country code top-level domain is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs
  • CDN
    A content delivery network or content distribution network is a geographically distributed network of proxy servers and their data centers. The goal is to provide high availability and high performance by distributing the service spatially relative to end-users.Read More
  • Cellular Automata
    A cellular Automation is a discrete model studied in computer science, methmatics , Physics, complexity science, theoretical Biology and microstructure modelling. Cellular automata are also called cellular spaces, tessellation automata homogeneous structures, cellular structures, tessellation structures, and iterative arrays.
  • Cellular Computer
    A term sometimes used to describe fine grain systems such as neural networks, systolic array, and SIMD systems. Such systems tend to be well suited for the implementation of cellular automata .
  • Central processing unit cache (CPU cache)
    Central processing unit cache (CPU cache) is a type of cache memory that a computer processor uses to access data and programs much more quickly than through host memory or random access memory (RAM). It enables storing and providing access to frequently used programs and data. CPU cache is also known as processor cache.
  • Centralized computing
    Centralized computing is a type of computing architecture where all or most of the processing/computing is performed on a central server. Centralized computing enables the deployment of all of a central server\'s computing resources, administration and management. The central server, in turn, is responsible for delivering application logic, processing and providing computing resources (both basic and complex) to the attached client machines.
  • Certificate revocation list (CRL)
    A certificate revocation list (CRL) is a list of subscribers paired with certificate status where each end user’s certificate is listed as valid, revoked or expired. A properly configured list indicates the reason for a revoked certificate along with the dates for which each certificate is valid. CRLs are an important part of public key infrastructure, as they allow a given infrastructure to more accurately enumerate valid and invalid digital certificates.
  • Certificate signing request (CSR)
    A certificate signing request (CSR) is basically a message that an applicant, usually a person or organization who owns a website that needs to be secured, sends to a certification authority in order to apply for a specific digital identity certificate. This is a standard procedure in a public key infrastructure (PKI) which allows website owners to prove to their users that the website they are visiting is authentic.
  • Certified Output Protection Protocol (COPP)
    Certified Output Protection Protocol (COPP) is a device driver technology that uses logo identification to deny access to video outputs or recordings. It was developed to prevent unauthorized digital video applications through developed security technology. Microsoft has encrypted control signals to ensure this type of protection. There are three protection mechanisms, and any graphics adapter must support one of them. This protocol securely connects between the graphics driver and the communication channel. The primary purpose of this security measure is to block unauthorized users from streaming protected audio and video.
  • Chain
    Computational fluid dynamics is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures o ana;yzE and solve problems that simulate the free stream flow of the fluid
  • Chaining
    Chaining is an instructional procedure used in behavioral psychology, experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis. It involves reinforcing individual responses occurring in a sequence to form a complex behavior.
  • Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
    Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is a process of authenticating a user to a network entity, which may be any server, e.g., the web or internet service provider (ISP). CHAP is primarily used for security purposes. For example, users provide authenticated plain text passwords when accessing remote servers, which also are authenticated prior to user access.
  • Challenge-response authentication
    Challenge-response authentication is a group or family of protocols characterized by one entity sending a challenge to another entity. The second entity must respond with the appropriate answer to be authenticated. A simple example of this is password authentication. The challenge is from a server asking the client for a password to authenticate the client\'s identity so that the client can be served.
  • Change data capture (CDC)
    Change data capture (CDC) refers to software that records database data activity for tracking purposes from enterprise database transaction logs. CDC mainly deals with tracking changes that occured within the data and its goal is to ensure data synchronicity.
  • Channel
    A communication channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.
  • Channel Flow
    Channel Flow is defined as the objectives which is based on the customer requirements the marketing strategy, and the company strategy and objectives. The flow is defined as, Growth in sales by reaching new markets and/or increasing sales in existing markets. Maintenance or improvement of market share Achieve a pattern of distribution by a certain time, place, and form Reduce costs or increase profits by creating an efficient channel
  • Channel Mask
    A non-negative integer specifying a set of communication channels. If the numbers of the channels to be specified are I0,I1In-1, then the channel mask is the integer for which these bit numbers are set to 1 and all other bits are 0
  • Channel Performance
    Channel performance measurement is a key activity when a sales organization employs different types of channel partners. ... The performance of a channel can be measured across multiple dimensions. The parameters that are measured usually are effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, equity and profitability of the channel.
  • Character encoding
    Character encoding is the process of representing individual characters using a corresponding encoding system made up of other symbols and types of data. Character coding is used for many different purposes. Character encoding is also known as a character set or character map.
  • Character generator
    A character generator adds characters or animated text to video in video-editing applications. A character generator can be a hardware or software based. Character generators are largely used during the broadcast of live television presentations or events.
  • Character Map
    Character Map is a free utility available in all Windows operating systems for inserting special symbols, accented letters or foreign-language characters into any Windows-based application. Character Map is a useful utility program, especially when dealing with word-processing programs like Microsoft Word.
  • Checkpointing
    Checkpointing is a technique that provides fault tolerance for computing systems. It basically consists of saving a snapshot of the application\'s state, so that applications can restart from that point in case of failure. It helps in tolerate failures that otherwise would force long running application to restart from the beginning. The most basic way to implement checkpointing, is to stop the application, copy all the required data from the memory to reliable storage and then continue with the execution.[1] In case of failure, when the application restarts, it does not need to start from scratch. Rather, it will read the latest state (\"the checkpoint\") from the stable storage and execute from that.
  • Checksum
    the checksum is a small-sized datum derived from a block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. It is usually applied to an installation file after it is received from the download server.
  • Child Process
    A child process is a process created by a parent process in operating system using a fork() system call. A child process may also be called a subprocess or a subtask. A child process is created as its parent process\'s copy and inherits most of its attributes
  • Chime
    Chained vector time, approximately equal to the vector length in a DO-loop. The number of chimes required for a loop dominates the time required for execution. A new chime begins each time a resource such as a functional unit, vector register or memory path, must be reused.
  • Chip multithreading (CMT)
    Chip multithreading (CMT) is a way to increase performance through parallel processing. It is the ability of the microprocessor to process multiple hardware threads of execution as well as process multiple software threads.
  • Chunksize
    Each chunk is a collection of rows that will be computed at the same time. The results of calculating each chunk are combined into the single feature matrix that is returned to the user. The size of these chunks is determined by the chunk size parameter, found in dfs and calculate feature matrix.
  • Churn Rate
    Churn rate is the percentage of customers of a service that discontinue using the service in a specific interval of time. A high churn rate often indicates that a company\'s services are not satisfactory. Churn rate is also known as Attrition Rate.
  • Circuit Switching
    Circuit switching is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel through the network before the nodes may communicate.
  • Class A IP address
    A Class A IP address is an IP address in which the first bit of the octet is set to zero, which provides values from 1 to 127. By contrast, a Class B address has the first bit set to one, and the second bit set to zero to utilize the remaining address set.
  • Class C network
    A class C network is the most common of the five computer network classes, designated as A through E, in classful network network addressing architecture. The class designations were based on the split of 32 bits required for an IP address, the first four of which indicated the address class in binary code: A=0 B=10 C=110 D=1110 E=1111 The classful network architecture was used from 1981 to 1993, when classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) was introduced. This new architecture’s goal was to decrease the rapid growth of routing tables on routers throughout the Internet and slow the inevitable depletion of IPv4 addresses.
  • Class variable
    A class variable is an important part of object-oriented programming (OOP) that defines a specific attribute or property for a class and may be referred to as a member variable or static member variable.
  • Class-based queuing (CBQ)
    Class-based queuing (CBQ) describes a system where network administrators assign a specific priority to each transmission or set of data packets, depending on what type of transmission it is. Network schedulers and other tools allow different types of data through traffic to share system bandwidth. In class-based queuing, administrators create classes to prioritize what gets done most quickly.
  • Classless interdomain routing (CIDR)
    Classless interdomain routing (CIDR) allows for the aggregation of different classes of IPv4 addresses. In the original IPv4 scheme, IP addresses were designated according to class, and this designation was illustrated in the values of the different octets of a given IPv4 address. When the IETF and other similar organizations began to recognize that simply dividing IP address space into classes would not be sufficient enough to conserve IP address space, the concept of CIDR was developed.
  • Clausal Logic
    In logic, a clause is an expression formed from a finite collection of literals. Clause is true either whenever at least one of the literals that form it is true, or when all of the literals that form it are true. That is, it is a finite disjunction or a conjunction of literals, depending on the context.
  • Clause
    In language, a clause is a part of the sentence that contains a verb. A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.
  • Click Area
    A type of insight report classified under website heatmaps that provides numerical data about clicks on various elements opposed to visually representing them as hot-zones.
  • Click Bait
    Clickbait is a form of false advertisement which uses hyperlink text or a thumbnail link that is designed to attract attention and entice users to follow that link and read, view, or listen to the linked
  • Click to Call
    Click-to-call, also known as click-to-talk, click-to-dial, click-to-chat and click-to-text, namely Webcall is a form of Web-based communication in which a person clicks an object to request an immediate connection with another person in real-time either by phone call, Voice-over-Internet-Protocol, or text.
  • Clickbait
    Clickbait refers to the sensationalized low-quality content on the internet, whose main purpose is to attract visitors and generate revenue from ad clicks. It is a form of False advertisement which uses hyperlink text or a thumbnail link that is designed to attract attention and entice users to follow that link and read , view or listen to the linked.
  • Clickjack attack
    A clickjack attack is a malicious technique used by an attacker to record the infected user’s clicks on the Internet. This can be used to direct traffic to a specific site or to make a user like or accept a Facebook application. More nefarious purposes might be to collect sensitive information saved on a browser, such as passwords, or to install malicious content. This type of attack is also known as clickjacking or UI readdressing.
  • Clickstream
    Clickstream is the sequence of hyperlinks one or more website visitors follows on a given site, presented in the order viewed.A visitor\'s click path may start within the website or at a separate 3rd party website, often a search engine results page, and it continues as a sequence of successive web pages visited by the user.Click paths take call data and can match it to ad sources, keywords, and/or referring domains, in order to capture data.
  • Client Server Model
    Client–server model is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.Often clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but both client and server may reside in the same system. A server host runs one or more server programs, which share their resources with clients. A client does not share any of its resources, but it requests content or service from a server. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await incoming requests.
  • Client Site Tasting
    Client-Side testing is concerned with the execution of code on the client, typically natively within a web browser or browser plugin. The execution of code on the client-side is distinct from executing on the server and returning the subsequent content.
  • Client-side code
    Client-side code is JavaScript code that runs on a user’s machine which is executed by the web browser after the browser loads a web page. Client-side code is very useful with interactive webpages; interactive content runs faster and more reliable since the user’s computer doesn’t have to communicate with the web server every time there is an interaction.
  • Clipboard hijacking attack
    A clipboard hijacking attack is when a hacker gains control of a personal computer’s clipboard and replaces its contents with its own malicious contents, which usually includes a link to a malware website. Flash banner ads are used by hackers to hijack clipboards and attack security software.
  • Cloaking
    Cloaking is a method which gives search engines the impression that a website carries content that is different to what users actually see. Visitors see a user friendly, visually appealing website which may, for example, contain little text and plenty of graphic or multimedia elements.Search engines are limited in their ability to recognize graphic and multimedia elements, which is why they are presented with a different website
  • Clock cycle
    In computers, the clock cycle is the amount of time between two pulses of an oscillator. It is a single increment of the central processing unit (CPU) clock during which the smallest unit of processor activity is carried out. The clock cycle helps in determining the speed of the CPU, as it is considered the basic unit of measuring how fast an instruction can be executed by the computer processor. A clock cycle is also known as a clock tick.
  • Clock gating
    Clock gating is a technique that enables the saving of electrical power used by computer processors. It ensures power saving by turning on a functional logic block clock, but only when required. Clock gating was the mainstay of the Pentium 4 architecture’s power saving modes.
  • Clock Interrupt
    Clock Interrupt occur on the other of every millisecond (typically configurable by the OS) and are used to support preemptive multitasking. Being invoked periodically, the OS can decide to allow the current task to continue running or schedule another task
  • Clock speed
    Clock speed is the number of cycles per second produced by a crystal oscillator, which regulates the timing for a synchronous circuit, such as a CPU. Clock speed is measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). The clock speed cycle of a CPU is a repetitive variation of the high and low voltages sent to a crystal oscillator. This steady pattern creates a frequency that is regulated by the number of times the voltage goes from high to low. One cycle is usually less than a nanosecond. The CPU instructions are implemented during specific points of the wave. One full wave is known as the instructions per cycle (IPC). Increasing CPU clock rate is one of several ways to improve the speed of information being processed. Clock speed is also known as clock rate or clock frequency.
  • Clock tick
    Same as a cycle, the smallest unit of time recognized by a device. For personal computers, clock ticks generally refer to the main system clock, which runs at 66 MHz.Since modern CPUs run much faster (up to 3 GHz), the CPU can execute several instructions in a single clock tick.
  • Cloud Based
    Operations that involve a network. The term often refers to the public internet, however a cloud may also be a private, internal network.
  • Cloud Computing
    Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user. The term is generally used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet.
  • Cloud computing Architecture
    Cloud models are typically categorized by where the cloud computing environment is deployed (the basis of distinction between public cloud, private cloud, community cloud, and hybrid cloud), and by which part of the IT service and application stack the cloud provides (the distinction between IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS clouds).
  • Cloud Computing security
    Cloud computing security is a fast-changing area of information security that is primarily concerned with the policies, technologies, and platforms that protect data, applications, and the associated infrastructure necessary for cloud computing.
  • Cloud elasticity
    Cloud elasticity refers to the ability of a cloud service to provide on-demand offerings, nimbly switching resources when demand goes up or down. It is often an immediate reaction to clients dropping or adding services in real time. Cloud elasticity is also known as rapid elasticity.
  • Cloud encryption gateway
    A cloud encryption gateway is a technology that provides point-of-process encryption for data traveling to and from a cloud environment. It is a tool that sits between a cloud system and an in-house system, and performs encryption or tokenization of data in transit. The resulting \"shielded\" data can then be used safely by software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications.
  • Cloud Native Database
    A Cloud-Native database is a sort of database service which is used to build, deployed and delivered through cloud platforms. It is mostly a Cloud platform as a service which provides models that allow the organization, end-user and their respective applications to store and manage and retrieve data from the cloud.
  • Cloud Network
    Cloud network is referred to a computer network that exists within or is part of a cloud computing infrastructure.It is a computer network that provides network interconnectivity between cloud based or cloud enabled application, services and solutions. Cloud network can be cloud based network or cloud enabled network.
  • Cloud Services
    Cloud services are any services that are delivered via a third party cloud computing platform rather than via traditional client/server infrastructure. Examples of cloud services include Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS).
  • Cloud sprawl
    Cloud sprawl is the uncontrolled proliferation of an organization’s cloud instances or cloud presence. It happens when an organization inadequately controls, monitors and manages its different cloud instances, resulting in numerous individual cloud instances which may then be forgotten but continue to use up resources or incur costs since most organizations pay for public cloud services.
  • Cloud Storage
    Cloud storage is a model of computer data storage in which the digital data is stored in logical pools. The physical storage spans multiple servers, and the physical environment is typically owned and managed by a hosting company. Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_storage 337. Cloud Network : Cloud network is referred to a computer network that exists within or is part of a cloud computing infrastructure.It is a computer network that provides network interconnectivity between cloud based or cloud enabled application, services and solutions. Cloud network can be cloud based network or cloud enabled network.
  • CloudFlare
    CF is a popular Content Delivery Network, which also offers Internet Security services. Plans start from free, but additional features are available for extra costs. CloudFlare is a fixed-cost CDN, meaning they charge by features instead of usage. CloudFlare allows you to route your sites traffic through their network before coming back to your origin host.
  • Co-Citation
    Co-citation, like Bibliographic Coupling, is a semantic similarity measure for documents that makes use of citation relationships. Co-citation is defined as the frequency with which two documents are cited together by other document If at least one other document cites two documents in common these documents are said to be co-cited. The more co-citations two documents received, the higher their co-citation strength, and the more likely they are semantically related
  • Co-Processor
    A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor. Operations performed by the coprocessor may be floating point arithmetic, graphics, signal processing, string processing, cryptography or I/O interfacing with peripheral devices.
  • Coarse Grain
    The size of operations done by a process between communications events. A fine grained process may perform only a few arithmetic operations between processing one message and the next, whereas a coarse grained process may perform millions.
  • Code bloat
    Code bloat is code that is allegedly too long or slow on most computer systems. While the term usually refers to source code that is too long, it can also refer to executables that might be considered excessively large. Causes of perceived code bloat might be use of object-oriented programming techniques where procedural techniques would do, inappropriate use of design patterns, declarative programming and loop unrolling. Solutions to code bloat can include refactoring and eliminating redundant calculations.
  • Code Minification
    It is the process of compression code from the original size to the smallest size and does not affect the operation of the code.
  • Code Profiling
    Typically they’re used by developers, without changing their code, to help identify performance problems. It can answer questions like how many times each method in your code is called and how long does each of those methods take. It tracks things like memory allocations and garbage collection. Some profilers also track key methods in your code so you can understand how often SQL statements are called and web service calls. Some profilers can track web requests and train those transactions to understand the performance of transactions within your code.
  • Code Quality
    Different teams may use different definitions, based on context. Good code quality may mean one thing for an automotive developer. And it may mean another for a web application developer.Code quality defines codes that is good. High quality is critical for many development teams today. And it\'s especially important for those developing safety-critical systems.
  • Cognitive Bias
    The systematic tendency, used by the brain as an information processing shortcut, to base judgment, memory, decision-making, etc., on one’s personal frame of reference instead of on rational logic.Many cognitive biases can also be used by CRO experts to increase conversions.
  • Cold boot
    Cold boot is the process of starting a computer from shutdown or a powerless state and setting it to normal working condition. A cold boot refers to the general process of starting the hardware components of a computer, laptop or server to the point that its operating system and all startup applications and services are launched. Cold boot is also known as hard boot, cold start or dead start.
  • Cold buffer
    A cold buffer is a segment of a computer memory reserved for temporary data storage that has not been accessed or used recently. A cold buffer could also refer to an area of the memory that has not been written recently. The concept of cold buffers is associated with the data structure used for memory management schemes like the least recently used (LRU) policy.
  • Cold server
    A cold server is a disaster recovery backup server that operates only if the main server is interrupted or fails. A cold server holds all main server files and programs and remains in an unpowered state until a backup is required.
  • Collect on Delivery
    With Collect-on-Delivery, more commonly known as COD, you can arrange for your customer to pay upon delivery of the merchandise, with the USPS collecting payment in either cash or check. If paid by check, the USPS will forward the check to you. If paid in cash, you\'ll be sent a USPS Money Order for the value of the payment.
  • Color depth
    Color depth or colour depth, also known as bit depth, is either the number of bits used to indicate the color of a single pixel, in a bitmapped image or video framebuffer, or the number of bits used for each color component of a single pixel.
  • Color model
    A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four values or color components.
  • Color space
    A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with physical device profiling, it allows for reproducible representations of color, in both analog and digital representations.
  • Combining
    Joining messages together as they traverse a network. Combining may be done to reduce the total traffic in the network, to reduce the number of times the start-up penalty of messaging is incurred, or to reduce the number of messages reaching a particular destination.
  • Combining Switch
    Combining Switch is an element of an interconnection network that can combine certain types of requests into one request and produce a response that mimics serial execution of the requests.
  • Comma separated values (CSV)
    A comma separated values (CSV) file contains different values separated by a delimiter, which acts as a database table or an intermediate form of a database table. In other words, a CSV file is a set of database rows and columns stored in a text file such that the rows are separated by a new line while the columns are separated by a semicolon or a comma. A CSV file is primarily used to transport data between two databases of different formats through a computer program.
  • command (.CMD)
    A command (.CMD) is a specific action assigned to a program to perform a specific task. It commonly refers to a specific word or phrase that tells the computer what to do through a command line interface or shell, depending on what kind of system is being used. Programming languages also refer to lines of code that initiate specific processes or statements as commands.
  • Command line interface (CLI)
    Command line interface (CLI) is a text-based interface that is used to operate software and operating systems while allowing the user to respond to visual prompts by typing single commands into the interface and receiving a reply in the same way. CLI is quite different from the graphical user interface (GUI) that is presently being used in the latest operating systems.
  • Command prompt
    The command prompt (cmd.exe) is a native Windows application meant to act as a command-line interpreter. It was created by Microsoft for the OS/2, Windows CE and Windows NT-based operating systems, which includes Windows 2000, XP and currently Windows 8 as well as various server versions of Windows. It is not a DOS program but a real executable application. As the name suggests, the command prompt is used to issue various commands to the system, like file management commands such as copy and delete. It also acts as a user interface.
  • Command-line option
    Command-line options are commands used to pass parameters to a program. These entries, also called command-line switches, can pass along cues for changing various settings or executing commands in an interface.
  • Common Management Internet Block (CMIP)
    CMIP is a protocol used for network Management Information Protocol.CMIP works with two other Layer 7 OSI protocols, ASCE (Association Control Service Element) and ROSE (Remote Operations Service Element Protocol). The former manages associations between management applications, i.e. connections between CMIP agents; and the later handles data exchange interactions.
  • Common Management Interoperability Service (CMIS)
    Content Management Interoperability Services is an open standard that allows different content management systems to interoperate over the Internet. Specifically, CMIS defines an abstraction layer for controlling diverse document management systems and repositories using web protocols.
  • Common Subexpression
    In compiler theory, common subexpression elimination is a compiler optimization that searches for instances of identical expressions, and analyzes whether it is worthwhile replacing them with a single variable holding the computed value
  • Communicating Sequential Processes
    In computer science, communicating sequential processes (CSP) is a formal language for describing patterns of interaction in concurrent systems. It is a member of the family of mathematical theories of concurrency known as process algebras, or process calculi, based on message passing via channels.
  • Communication Channel
    A communication channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.
  • Communication Overhead
    In computer science, overhead is any combination of excess or indirect computation time, memory, bandwidth, or other resources that are required to perform a specific task. It is a special case of engineering overhead.
  • Communication Width
    Key Dimensions of Communication. Sender - encodes and transmits. Message - content. Channel - medium used to transmit content. Receiver or Audience - decodes communication to derive meaning.
  • Comparator
    In electronics, a comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and outputs a digital signal indicating which is larger. It has two analog input terminals and one binary digital output. The output is ideally A comparator consists of a specialized high-gain differential amplifier.
  • Compare Exchange
    Compare Exchange is the fundamental operation of the bitonic merge algorithm. Two numbers are brought together, compared, and then exchanged, if necessary, so that they are in the proper order.
  • Compensatory Rule
    Compensatory Decision Rules A type of decision rule in which a consumer evaluates each brand in terms of each relevant attribute and then selects the brand with the highest weighted score. ... Brands that fall below the cutoff point on any one attribute are eliminated from further consideration
  • Competitive Frame
    The competitive frame of reference provides the context for positioning, and it is a fancy way of describing the market or context in which you choose to position your brand.
  • Competitive intelligence
    In general, the act of defining, gathering, analyzing, and distributing intelligence about competitors in order to make strategic decisions that ideally lead to competitive advantage in the marketplace.
  • Compile
    Compile refers to the act of converting programs written in high level programming language, which is understandable and written by humans, into a low level binary language understood only by the computer. To compile, you need a compiler, which is a software program that converts high level programming language code into machine code.
  • Compiler Directives
    In computer programming, a directive or pragma is a language construct that specifies how a compiler should process its input. Directives are not part of the grammar of a programming language, and may vary from compiler to compiler.
  • Compiler Optimization
    In computing, an optimizing compiler is a compiler that tries to minimize or maximize some attributes of an executable computer program. Common requirements are to minimize a program\'s execution time, memory requirement, and power consumption.
  • Compiler Optimization
    An optimizing compiler is a compiler that tries to minimize or maximize some attributes of an executable computer program. Common requirements are to minimize a program\'s execution time, memory requirement, and power consumption. Compiler optimization is generally implemented using a sequence of optimizing transformations, algorithms which take a program and transform it to produce a semantically equivalent output program that uses fewer resources and/or executes faster. It has been shown that some code optimization problems are undecidable.
  • Complementary Metal Oxide on Silicon (CMOS )
    Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor, is a type of MOSFET fabrication process that uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs for logic functions.
  • Complex Event Processing
    Complex event processing, or CEP, consists of a set of concepts and techniques developed in the early 1990\'s for processing real-time events and extracting information from event streams as they arrive. The goal of complex event processing is to identify meaningful events in real-time situations and respond to them as quickly as possible.These events may be happening across the various layers of an organization as sales leads, orders or customer service calls. Or, they may be news items
  • Complex Instruction Set Computer
    A complex instruction set computer is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.
  • Complex Instruction set computer (CISC)
    A complex instruction set computer is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.
  • Complex SQL
    Complex SQL is the use of SQL queries which go beyond the standard SQL of using the SELECT and WHERE commands. Complex SQL often involves using complex joins and sub-queries, where queries are nested in WHERE clauses. Complex queries frequently involve heavy use of AND and OR clauses. These queries make it possible to perform more accurate searches of a database.
  • Complex Test Layout
    Complex text layout or complex text rendering is the typesetting of writing systems in which the shape or positioning of a grapheme depends on its relation to other graphemes. The term is used in the field of software internationalization, where each grapheme is a character.
  • Complexity
    Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions.
  • Component testing
    A component test is any performance test that targets an architectural component of the application. Commonly tested components include servers, databases, networks, firewalls, clients, and storage devices.
  • Compress Index
    Index. Key Compression (also known as prefix compression) eliminates duplicate copies of pre-defined number of index prefix columns at. the index leaf block level and is an effective way to permanently reduce the index. size, both on disk and in cache.
  • Computation - to - Communication ratio
    Communication to Computation Ratio (C-to-C Ratio): Represents the amount of. resulting communication between tasks of a parallel program. In general, for a parallel computation, a lower C-to-C ratio is. desirable and usually indicates better parallel performance
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics
    Computational fluid dynamics is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to analyze and solve problems that involve fluid flows.
  • Computer cluster
    A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system. Unlike grid computers, computer clusters have each node set to perform the same task, controlled and scheduled by software.
  • Concatenation
    In an attempt to save space, concatenation includes connecting two or more character strings. Then the concatenated character strings are addressed as one element, reducing time for retrieval (less demands implies less browser job and quicker rendering).
  • Concurrency
    Concurrency is the ability of a database to allow multiple users to affect multiple transactions. This is one of the main properties that separates a database from other forms of data storage like spreadsheets.
  • Concurrent Computer
    Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed during overlapping time periods—concurrently—instead of sequentially.
  • Concurrent Processing
    Concurrent processing is a computing model in which multiple processors execute instructions simultaneously for better performance. Concurrent means something that happens at the same time as something else. ... Concurrent processing is sometimes said to be synonymous with parallel processing.
  • Concurrent Users
    The website should not be designed for a single user or single user at a time usages it should be able to let many users concurrently access and fetch data from the website Understanding this metric – and how it is connected with average response time , will help the development of a high-performance web application.
  • Configuration
    In communications or computer systems, a configuration of a system refers to the arrangement of each of its functional units, according to their nature number and chief characteristics. Often, configuration pertains to the choice of hardware, software, firmware, and documentation.
  • Configuration elements
    Configuration elements can be used to set up defaults and variables for later use by samplers. Note that these elements are processed at the start of the scope in which they are found, i.e. before any samplers in the same scope.
  • Configuration files
    In computer science, configuration files provide the parameters and initial settings for the operating system and some computer applications. Configuration files are usually written in ASCII encoding and contain all necessary data about the specific application, computer, user or file. Configuration files can be used for a wide range of reasons, though they are mostly used by operating systems and applications to customize the environment. Configuration files are used for operation system settings, server processes or software applications. Configuration files are also known as config files.
  • Configure test environment
    Prepare the test environment, tools, and resources necessary to execute each strategy as features and components become available for test. Ensure that the test environment is instrumented for resource monitoring as necessary.
  • Conformance Checking
    Conformance Checking is a technique used to compare event logs or the resulting process with the existing reference model (target model) of the same process. This technique is used to determine whether the target process corresponds to the actual process. Conformance Checking is a Process Mining method used to check compliance.
  • Confused Deputy
    A confused deputy relates to a computer program which is fooled into misusing its authority.
  • Conjugate Gradient Method
    In mathematics, the conjugate gradient method is an algorithm for the numerical solution of particular systems of linear equations, namely those whose matrix is symmetric and positive-definite.
  • Connect Time
    Connect time is the time taken to establish a TCP connection between the server and the client. TCP/IP model guarantees delivery of data by its nature by using the TCP Handshake. If TCP Handshake is successful, then the client can send further requests. That data send/receive task is not on the HTTP layer. If there’s no TCP connection made between the server and the client, the client can’t talk to the server. This can happen if the server is not live or busy responding to other requests.
  • Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC)
    The Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) is a specification of a framework for Java ME applications describing the basic set of libraries and virtual-machine features that must be present in an implementation. The CLDC is combined with one or more profiles to give developers a platform for building applications on embedded devices with very limited resources such as pagers and mobile phones. CLDC is one of two configurations under the Java Platform Micro Edition (Java ME). Compared to the devices supported by another configuration (called Connected Device Configuration), CLDC-supported devices have more constrained hardware resources, including RAM, screen size and resolution, and CPU.
  • Connectionless Network protocol (CLNP)
    Connectionless-mode Network Service or simply Connectionless Network Service is an OSI Network Layer datagram service that does not require a circuit to be established before data is transmitted, and routes messages to their destinations independently of any other messages.
  • Connectionless Transport Protocol (CLTP)
    In telecommunication, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one end point to another without prior arrangement. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are connectionless protocols.
  • Consistently Interactive
    Depending on what is loaded, and how it’s loaded, that this delayed JavaScript could cause hiccups in the interactivity of the page. Thus, keeping an eye on the Time to Consistently Interactive can give us an idea of if there are issues after the initial load that we may need to address.
  • Constrained Optimization
    It is the process of optimizing an objective function with respect to some variables in the presence of constraints on those variables. The objective function is either a cost function or energy function, which is to be minimized, or a reward function or utility function, which is to be maximized. Constraints can be either hard constraints, which set conditions for the variables that are required to be satisfied, or soft constraints, which have some variable values that are penalized in the objective function if, and based on the extent that the conditions on the variables are not satisfied.
  • Consumer off-Take
    Consumer off-take refers to purchases by consumers from retailers, as opposed to purchases by retailers or wholesalers from their suppliers. When consumer off-take runs higher than manufacturer sales rates, inventories will be drawn down.
  • Content Addressable
    Content-addressable storage, also referred to as content-addressed storage or abbreviated CAS, is a way to store information so it can be retrieved based on its content, not its location. It has been used for high-speed storage and retrieval of fixed content, such as documents stored for compliance with government regulations. Content-addressable storage is like content-addressable memory.
  • Content Management System (CMS)
    Also known as a CMS, the Content Management System is a backend tool for managing a site’s content that separates said content from the design and functionality of the site. Using a CMS generally makes it easier to change the design or function of a site independent of the site’s content. It also (usually) makes it easier for content to be added to the site for people who aren’t designers.
  • Content Optimization
    Content Optimization is a process in which a webpage and its content are optimized to become more attractive, useful and actionable to users. The processes typically include fixes and improvements on technical performance (ex: page speed) and content copy for it to perform and rank better on the search engines.
  • Content Score
    The content score is an aggregated predictor for the competitiveness of online content. Within the editor of Searchmetrics Content Experience (SCE) the Content Score uses data to determine the quality of the writing and optimization to what is considered to be relevant content.
  • Contention
    In statistical time division multiplexing, contention is a media access method that is used to share a broadcast medium. In contention, any computer in the network can transmit data at any time. This system breaks down when two computers attempt to transmit at the same time. This is known as a collision
  • Contention
    In statistical time division multiplexing, contention is a media access method that is used to share a broadcast medium. In contention, any computer in the network can transmit data at any time. This system breaks down when two computers attempt to transmit at the same time. This is known as a collision.
  • Context Switch
    In computing, a context switch is the process of storing the state of a process or of a thread, so that it can be restored and execution resumed from the same point later. This allows multiple processes to share a single CPU, and is an essential feature of a multitasking operating system.
  • Context Switching
    In computing, a context switch is the process of storing the state of a process or of a thread, so that it can be restored and execution resumed from the same point later. This allows multiple processes to share a single CPU, and is an essential feature of a multitasking operating system.
  • Continuous Delivery
    Continuous Delivery is the software development process of getting code changes into production quickly, safely and with higher quality usually using tools to automate the deploys. It aims at building, testing, and releasing software with greater speed and frequency. The approach helps reduce the cost, time, and risk of delivering changes by allowing for more incremental updates to applications in production.
  • Continuous Optimization
    Continuous optimization is a branch of optimization in applied mathematics. As opposed to discrete optimization, the variables used in the objective function are required to be continuous variables that is, to be chosen from a set of real values between which there are no gaps.
  • control bus
    A control bus is a computer bus that is used by the CPU to communicate with devices that are contained within the computer. This occurs through physical connections such as cables or printed circuits. The CPU transmits a variety of control signals to components and devices to transmit control signals to the CPU using the control bus. One of the main objectives of a bus is to minimize the lines that are needed for communication. An individual bus permits communication between devices using one data channel. The control bus is bidirectional and assists the CPU in synchronizing control signals to internal devices and external components. It is comprised of interrupt lines, byte enable lines, read/write signals and status lines.
  • Control Driven
    Data-driven control systems are a broad family of control systems, in which the identification of the process model and/or the design of the controller are based entirely on experimental data collected from the plant.
  • Control Process
    The control process is the system that allows setting, measure, match and tweak any business activities such as production, packaging, delivery and more. The control process is the functional process for organizational control that arises from the goals and strategic plans of the organization.
  • Control reconfiguration
    Control reconfiguration is used when severe faults, such as actuator or sensor outages, cause a break-up of the control loop, which must be restructured to prevent failure at the system level. In addition to loop restructuring, the controller parameters must be adjusted to accommodate changed plant dynamics. Control reconfiguration is a building block toward increasing the dependability of systems under feedback control.
  • Conversion Funnel
    Also, sales funnel. The path a website visitor takes through a website which leads to a desired final conversion, usually a macro-conversion. Conversion funnels are often referred to in the context of ecommerce websites, but may be applied to any online context in which prospects move through a process towards a final desired action.
  • Conversion Path
    The conversion path is the step-by-step series of clicks that a visitor goes through on your website, from their first interaction with you to whatever goal you’re trying to accomplish on your site.
  • Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO)
    CRO is an approach to developing and optimizing internet websites to cause certain customer behaviors, most particularly converting on a task like buying or downloading content.
  • Cookie
    A cookie is a piece of data that a website stores in a visitor’s browser to track that visitor’s browsing history on your website. It\'s also a crucial component of the technology behind personalization.
  • Cookie Churn
    Cookie churn or cookie churn rate is the rate at which cookies are deleted from user\'s browser over a period of time, usually weeks or months. Cookie churn is important in experiments where the users cannot be uniquely identified across browsers and devices and the only way to persist an experiment treatment across sessions is to rely on a cookie identifier.
  • Cookie poisoning
    Cookie poisoning is an effort by an unauthorized person to access and control aspects of the data in a cookie, usually in order to steal someone’s identity or financial information. Many different kinds of hacking that focus on taking data from cookies can be called cookie poisoning, including theft of passwords, credit card numbers or other identifiers that are stored on cookie files.
  • Cookie respawning
    Cookie respawning is the process of recreating browser cookies from information that has been deleted. With cookie respawning, companies can take information stored in flash cookies and use it to recreate a cookie in the browser. There are concerns that cookie respawning can violate a user\'s privacy and become problematic for the operation of the computer in the same way that any kind of cookie storage can ultimately challenge an operating system.
  • Coprocessor
    It is designed to manipulate numbers or perform some other specialized function more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuits could perform the same task. A coprocessor offloads specialized processing operations, thereby reducing the burden on the basic microprocessor circuitry and allowing it to work at optimum speed.
  • Copy on write page
    Copy-on-write is lazy copying, child process copy the page when trying to write it. So basically, after a fork, almost child\'s memory is shared with parents. However, before any of the processes made, every child process still have some private memory, modified from parent\'s or new allocating.
  • Copy Testing
    \'Copy testing is a specialized field of marketing research that determines an advertisement\'s effectiveness based on consumer responses, feedback, and behavior. Also known as pre-testing, it might address all media channels including television, print, radio, outdoor signage, internet, and social media
  • Core Benefit
    Core Benefit Proposition tells about what a consumer would perceive as the benefit in purchasing a new product compared to that in buying a competitor\'s product. In some cases, market pressures determine the core benefit.
  • Core Level
    Core electrons are the electrons in an atom that are not valence electrons and therefore do not participate in bonding. The number of valence electrons of an element can be determined by the periodic table group of the element.
  • Core memory
    Core memory was a common form of random access memory (RAM) from the mid-1950s to the mid-\'70s, and It was developed at MIT in 1951. The memory made use of magnetic rings called cores that had wires passing through them for selecting and detecting the contents of the cores. With the introduction of memory based on semiconductor technology, core memory became obsolete, though some still call the main memory of a computer, the core memory. Core memory is also known as magnetic-core memory.
  • Cost
    In production, research, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something or deliver a service, and hence is not available for use anymore. In business, the cost may be one of acquisition, in which case the amount of money expended to acquire it is counted as cost.
  • Cost Based Optimization
    It is an optimization technique in Spark SQL that uses table statistics to determine the most efficient query execution plan of a structured query .Cost-based optimization is disabled by default. Spark SQL uses spark.sql.cbo.enabled configuration property to control whether the CBO should be enabled and used for query optimization or not. Cost-Based Optimization uses logical optimization rules to optimize the logical plan of a structured query based on statistics.
  • cPanel
    cPanel & WHM is an online Linux-based web hosting control panel that provides a graphical interface (GUI) and automation tools designed to simplify the process of hosting a web site to the website owner or the \"end user\". cPanel & WHM utilizes a three-tier structure that provides capabilities for administrators, resellers, and end-user website owners to control the various aspects of website and server administration through a standard web browser
  • CPL (Cost Per Lead)
    Also known as cost per lead, CPL is a pricing model for online advertising where advertisers will pay for every customer that fills out a lead or sign-up form. In CPL campaigns, advertisers can also pay for contact information of targeted consumers who show interest in their service or product. They are mostly used by direct-response marketers and brand marketers.
  • CPU Bound
    In computer science, a computer is CPU-bound when the time for it to complete a task is determined principally by the speed of the central processor: processor utilization is high, perhaps at 100% usage for many seconds or minutes. Interrupts generated by peripherals may be processed slowly, or indefinitely delayed.
  • CPU interrupt code (CPU)
    A CPU interrupt code (CPU) is a code sent by software or hardware to a CPU to suspend the execution of all processes until the process requested in the interrupt is complete. Interrupts allow software or hardware to take precedence over existing program execution, usually in order to perform critical actions such as protocol acknowledgment or a timing signal. They can be edge-triggered or level-triggered.
  • Crash-only software
    Crash-only software refers to computer programs that handle failures by simply restarting, without attempting any sophisticated recovery. Correctly written components of crash-only software can micro reboot to a known-good state without the help of a user. Since failure-handling and normal startup use the same methods, this can increase the chance that bugs in failure-handling code will be noticed, except when there are leftover artifacts, such as data corruption from a severe failure, that don\'t occur during normal startup.
  • Crawl Error
    Crawl errors occur when a search engine tries to reach a page on your website but fails at it. Let\'s shed some more light on crawling first. Crawling is the process where a search engine tries to visit every page of your website via a bot
  • Crawler Directives
    Robots directives are sections of code that give instructions to website crawlers about how a page\'s content should be crawled or indexed. Robots meta tags allow a granular approach to controlling how specific pages are indexed and shown in search engine results pages.
  • Crawler error
    Crawler error is the inability of a crawler to view or index pages on a website.
  • Crawlers
    A crawler is a program used by search engines to collect data from the internet. When a crawler visits a website, it picks over the entire website’s content (i.e. the text) and stores it in a databank. It also stores all the external and internal links to the website. The crawler will visit the stored links at a later point in time, which is how it moves from one website to the next. By this process the crawler captures and indexes every website that has links to at least one other website.
  • Credential Stuffing
    Credential stuffing is a cyber attack in which credentials acquired on one system from a data breach are used to try to sign in to another unrelated system.
  • Critical Node
    An element, position, or command and control entity whose disruption or destruction immediately degrades the ability of a force to command, control, or effectively conduct combat operations. Also called target critical damage point.
  • Critical Path
    Critical Path analysis is the mathematical network analysis technique of planning complex working procedures with reference to the critical path of each alternative system.
  • Critical Rendering Path
    The critical rendering path is a term used to describe a browser\'s natural sequence to start rendering a web page. It involves downloading and studying the HTML, downloading and parsing any CSS and JavaScript files that are requested in the HTML, and verifying that it is protected on all bases (so that nothing breaks when rendering begins).
  • Critical Section
    In concurrent programming, concurrent accesses to shared resources can lead to unexpected or erroneous behavior, so parts of the program where the shared resource is accessed need to be protected in ways that avoid the concurrent access. This protected section is the critical section or critical region.
  • Cross Domain Tracking
    Cross-domain tracking is the ability of tracking devices to connect sessions from two separate websites domains in an attempt to attribute behavior to the same user.
  • Crunch Time
    A critical period of time characterized by a heightened pressure to succeed, It’s usually used when there is a deadline coming up, and is to try to say that there is a sense of urgency to the situation – and things need to be done as quickly as possible.
  • CSRF (Cross-site request forgery)
    A cross-site request forgery assault is a sort of confused deputy cyber attack that forces a customer into using their records accidentally to invoke a state-changing exercise, such as moving money from their register, altering their email address and password, or some other undesirable behavior.
  • CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
    CSS describes how HTML elements are to be displayed on screen, paper, or in other media. It can control the layout of multiple web pages all at once. External stylesheets are stored in CSS files.
  • CSS framework
    A CSS framework is a collection of CSS files used as the starting point to make XHTML and CSS web sites quickly and painlessly. They usually contain CSS styles for typography and layout.
  • CSS Sprite
    A number of images are combined in a CSS sprite, typically small images, to form a single graph. Using CSS directions, the different parts of this larger graphic are placed around the website. This strategy reduces bandwidth and optimizes website loading as it reduces the total amount of pictures to be retrieved.
  • CTR (Click Through Rate)
    It is the percentage of clicks on a button or a link, out of the total number of visitors who saw it.
  • Cube Connected Cycle Network
    In graph theory, the cube-connected cycles is an undirected cubic graph, formed by replacing each vertex of a hypercube graph by a cycleIt was introduced for use as a network topology in parallel computing.
  • CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture)
    CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) is a parallel computing platform and application programming interface (API) model created by Nvidia. It allows software developers and software engineers to use a CUDA-enabled graphics processing unit (GPU) for general purpose processing — an approach termed GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units). The CUDA platform is a software layer that gives direct access to the GPU\'s virtual instruction set and parallel computational elements, for the execution of compute kernels.
  • Custom Variables
    These are pair tags that can be inserted in tracking code for the purpose of adjusting and customizing your Google Analytics tracking. They make it possible for you to define extra segments to apply to your users other than those provided by default by Google Analytics.
  • Customer Journey
    Customer Journey analytics is the weaving together of every touchpoint that a customer interacts with, across multiple channels and over time . It connects millions of events into journey’s from our customers’ point of view and is a data driven approach to discovering analyzing and influencing your customers’ journeys
  • Cyber Attacks
    Cyber attacks take advantage of the open infrastructure of the Internet to steal or destroy critical corporate data, compromise Web sites, and disrupt operational infrastructures, making cyber security a top priority for any enterprise with valuable digital assets and an Internet presence. Due to the increased availability of easy-to-implement attack tools, almost anyone with the basic skills necessary to carry out a cyber attack. Vulnerabilities include weaknesses in software, computing devices, increasing complexity of sites and applications, and the humans that administer and use them. Government organizations and financial firms remain the focus of many cyber attacks.
  • Cyber Flood
    CyberFlood is a powerful, easy-to-use testing platform that generates realistic application traffic and attacks to test the performance, scalability and security of today’s application-aware network infrastructures.
  • Cyber Security
    Cyber security systems and principles are designed to safeguard websites and web applications from attackers seeking to disrupt, delay, alter or redirect the flow of data. These attackers vary in target, motive, levels of organization, and technical capabilities, requiring public and private organizations to adopt ever-increasing measures to prevent cyber attacks.
  • Cycle Reduction
    Cycle time reduction is the strategy of lowering the time it takes to perform a process in order to improve productivity. In addition, cycle time reduction often improves quality. When a cycle time is too close to take time, there is little margin for error.
  • Cycle Time
    The cycle time is the time required to complete a process, process variant, business case, or activity. The cycle time is made up of the processing time, the idle time, the transport time, and the waiting time. You can use the cycle time to analyze the process to determine process performance for instance.
  • DACS
    A digital cross-connect system (DCS or DXC) is a piece of circuit-switched network equipment, used in telecommunications networks, that allows lower-level TDM bit streams, such as DS0 bit streams,to be rearranged and interconnected among higher-level TDM signals, such as DS1 bit streams. DCS units are available that operate on both older T-carrier/E-carrier bit streams, as well as newer SONET/SDH bit streams.
  • Daemon
    In multitasking computer operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user. Traditionally, the process names of a daemon end with the letter d, for clarification that the process is in fact a daemon, and for differentiation between a daemon and a normal computer program.
  • Dalvik
    Dalvik is an open source, register-based virtual machine (VM) that’s part of the Android OS. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format and relies on the Linux kernel for additional functionality like threading and low-level memory management.
  • Dark data
    Dark data is a type of unstructured, untagged and untapped data that is found in data repositories and has not been analyzed or processed. It is similar to big data but differs in how it is mostly neglected by business and IT administrators in terms of its value. Dark data is also known as dusty data.
  • Dashboard
    A dashboard is a reporting tool that consolidates, aggregates and arranges measurements, metrics (measurements compared to a goal) and sometimes scorecards on a single screen so information can be monitored at a glance
  • Data bleed
    The term “data bleed” is now somewhat popular, but also a little hard to define, since the term itself is not well defined on the internet. In general, data bleed occurs when there is not transparency into data use, and users or other parties experience mysterious data quantification, or where data transfers happen without the express permission of the user.
  • Data breach
    A data breach is the transfer of confidential, personal, or otherwise vulnerable information into an unsecured environment An infringement of data may happen accidentally or as a consequence of an intentional attack.
  • Data Cache
    A data block that contains frequently accessed data in a textual or binary format, which may be either saved to a persistent storage at the client or server side, or persistent in memory for the lifetime of a single client request, a user session, or an application process.
  • Data center rack
    A data center rack is a type of physical steel and electronic framework that is designed to house servers, networking devices, cables and other data center computing equipment. This physical structure provides equipment placement and orchestration within a data center facility.
  • Data cholesterol
    Data cholesterol is a slang term that refers to the slowing effect that huge amounts of improperly managed information can have on an organization\'s IT infrastructure. Large amounts of data can slow applications, make it difficult to find relevant information and generally impede an organization. Data cholesterol has many causes, including increased regulatory requirements that require more information to be stored for longer amounts of time, and a general increase in data gathering and analytical techniques.
  • Data Code
    A portion of a program that does not have to be executed (because the values it calculates will never be used) or that will never be entered. Compiler optimization usually removes sections of dead code.
  • Data corruption
    Data corruption is a when data becomes unusable, unreadable or in some other way inaccessible to a user or application. Data corruption occurs when a data element or instance loses its base integrity and transforms into a form that is not meaningful for the user or the application accessing it.
  • Data definition language (DDL)
    A data definition language (DDL) is a computer language used to create and modify the structure of database objects in a database. DDL statements create, modify, and remove database objects such as tables, indexes, and users. Common DDL statements are CREATE, ALTER, and DROP.
  • Data Dependency
    A data dependency in computer science is a situation in which a program statement refers to the data of a preceding statement. In compiler theory, the technique used to discover data dependencies among statements is called dependence analysis. There are three types of dependencies: data, name, and control.
  • Data Driven
    The adjective data-driven means that progress in an activity is compelled by data, rather than by intuition or by personal experience. Data-driven may refer to: Data-driven programming, computer programming in which program statements describe data to be matched and the processing required.
  • Data encryption key (DEK)
    A data encryption key (DEK) is a type of key designed to encrypt and decrypt data at least once or possibly multiple times. DEKs are created by an encryption engine. Data is encrypted and decrypted with the help of the same DEK; therefore, a DEK must be stored for at least a specified duration for decrypting the generated cipher text.
  • Data Extraction
    Data extraction describes the extraction of data from a system. In the context of Process Mining, this means that event data is extracted from an IT system in order to then perform a data transformation and use this data for analyses.
  • Data Flow Analysis
    Data-flow analysis is a technique for gathering information about the possible set of values calculated at various points in a computer program. A program\'s control flow graph is used to determine those parts of a program to which a particular value assigned to a variable might propagate.
  • Data Flow Graph
    In a data flow graph, nodes are computations that send and receive data messages. Some nodes may only send messages, others may only receive messages, and others may send messages in response to messages that they receive.
  • Data in motion
    Data in motion refers to a stream of data moving through any kind of network. It is one of the two major states of data, the other being data at rest. It can be considered the opposite of data at rest as it represents data which is being transferred or moved, while data at rest is data which is static and is not moving anywhere. For example, an email being sent is an example of data in motion. However, when it arrives in the recipient\'s inbox, it would then become data at rest. Data in motion is also known as data in transit or data in flight.
  • Data Layer
    The data layer is through the use of what is sometimes referred to as a Universal Data Object (UDO), which is written in the JavaScript programming language. The types of data contained in a data layer can be numerous and varied, consisting of things like e-commerce transaction information, web behavioral data, and mobile application usage. The graphic to the right shows a web channel broken down by components.
  • Data Lineage
    Data lineage includes the data origin, what happens to it and where it moves over time. Data lineage gives visibility while greatly simplifying the ability to trace errors back to the root cause in a data analytics process.
  • Data Management Platform (DMP)
    A Data Management Platform is used to combine and manage data from different sources. Offline and online data from web applications, web analysis tools, CRM systems or even in-store purchases can be collected, processed and actively used by different third party tools like A/B testing or personalization platforms. In general, cookie IDs are collected from various systems, which are then used to create user profiles and ultimately to target groups using segmentation.
  • Data mapping
    Data mapping is a process used in data warehousing by which different data models are linked to each other using a defined set of methods to characterize the data in a specific definition. This definition can be any atomic unit, such as a unit of metadata or any other semantic. This data linking follows a set of standards, which depends on the domain value of the data model used. Data mapping serves as the initial step in data integration.
  • Data migration
    Data migration is the process of transporting data between computers, storage devices or formats. It is a key consideration for any system implementation, upgrade or consolidation. During data migration, software programs or scripts are used to map system data for automated migration. Data migration is categorized as storage migration, database migration, application migration and business process migration. These scenarios are routine IT activities, and most organizations migrate data on a quarterly basis.
  • Data Mining
    Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
  • Data obfuscation (DO)
    Data obfuscation (DO) is a form of data masking where data is purposely scrambled to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive materials. This form of encryption results in unintelligible or confusing data. There are two types of DO encryption: Cryptographic DO: Input data encoding prior to being transferred to another encryption schema. Network security DO: Payload attack methods are purposely enlisted to avoid detection by network protection systems. DO is also known as data scrambling and privacy preservation.
  • Data Parallelism
    Data parallelism is parallelization across multiple processors in parallel computing environments. It focuses on distributing the data across different nodes, which operate on the data in parallel. It can be applied on regular data structures like arrays and matrices by working on each element in parallel.
  • Data purging
    Data purging is a term that is commonly used to describe methods that permanently erase and remove data from a storage space. There are many different strategies and techniques for data purging, which is often contrasted with data deletion. Deletion is often seen as a temporary preference, whereas purging removes the data permanently and opens up memory or storage space for other uses.
  • Data Reconciliation
    Industrial process data validation and reconciliation, or more briefly, data validation and reconciliation, is a technology that uses process information and mathematical methods in order to automatically ensure data validation and reconciliation by correcting measurements in industrial processes.
  • Data redundancy
    Data redundancy is a condition created within a database or data storage technology in which the same piece of data is held in two separate places. This can mean two different fields within a single database, or two different spots in multiple software environments or platforms. Whenever data is repeated, this basically constitutes data redundancy. This can occur by accident, but is also done deliberately for backup and recovery purposes.
  • Data sandbox
    A data sandbox, in the context of big data, is a scalable and developmental platform used to explore an organization\'s rich information sets through interaction and collaboration. It allows a company to realize its actual investment value in big data. A data sandbox is primarily explored by data science teams that obtain sandbox platforms from stand-alone, analytic data marts or logical partitions in enterprise data warehouses. Data sandbox platforms provide the computing required for data scientists to tackle typically complex analytical workloads.
  • Data scraping
    Data scraping is commonly defined as a system where a technology extracts data from a particular codebase or program. Data scraping provides results for a variety of uses and automates aspects of data aggregation.
  • Data scrubbing
    Data scrubbing refers to the procedure of modifying or removing incomplete, incorrect, inaccurately formatted, or repeated data in a database. The key objective of data scrubbing is to make the data more accurate and consistent. Data scrubbing is a vital strategy for ensuring that databases remain accurate. It is especially important in data-intensive industries, including telecommunications, insurance, banking and retailing. Data scrubbing systematically evaluates data for flaws or mistakes with the help of look-up tables, rules and algorithms. Data scrubbing is also referred to as data cleansing.
  • Data Secure Filter
    Data security filtering is a way of refining which users and computers will receive and apply the settings in a Group Policy object (GPO).However, you can change these permissions to limit the scope to a specific set of users, groups, or computers within the organizational unit, domain, or site
  • Data smog
    Data smog refers to an overwhelming amount of data and information — often obtained through an internet search — whose volume serves more to confuse the user than illuminate a topic. Data smog is a term coined from a book written by the journalist David Shenk, which deals with the influence of the information technology revolution and how the vast amount of information available online makes it increasingly difficult to separate facts from fiction.
  • Data vaulting
    Data vaulting is a way to secure data by sending copies of it off-site where it can be protected from theft, hardware failures and other threats. This is often done by organizations with highly sensitive data, which should never be lost. Institutions like banks and insurance firms have some sort of data vaulting scheme in place to prevent data loss.
  • Data Warehouse
    In computing, a data warehouse, also known as an enterprise data warehouse, is a system used for reporting and data analysis, and is considered a core component of business intelligence. DWs are central repositories of integrated data from one or more disparate sources. They store current and historic data in one single place that are used for creating analytical reports for workers throughout the enterprise .
  • Data wrangling
    Data wrangling is a specific type of data management that as arisen out of new software capabilities introducing large, messy and diverse data sets that need to go into a service-oriented architecture (SOA) for the purposes of analytics and use. Data wrangling generally involves many different sophisticated techniques for handling irregular or diverse data and manipulating it for business use cases.
  • Database Buffer Cache
    In the phrase database buffer cache, the term buffer refers to database blocks. A database block is the minimum amount of storage that Oracle reads or writes. All storage segments that contain data are made up of blocks. When you request data from disk, at minimum Oracle reads one block.
  • Database Clustering
    Database Clustering is the process of combining more than one servers or instances connecting a single database. Sometimes one server may not be adequate to manage the amount of data or the number of requests, that is when a Data Cluster is needed.
  • Database Definition Language
    A data definition or data description language is a syntax similar to a computer programming language for defining data structures, especially database schemas. DDL statements create, modify, and remove database objects such as tables, indexes, and users. Common DDL statements are CREATE, ALTER, and DRO.
  • Database Instance
    A database instance is a set of memory structures that manage database files. A database is a set of physical files on disk created by the create database statement. The instance manages its associated data and serves the users of the database.
  • Database Manipulation
    A data manipulation language is a computer programming language used for adding, deleting, and modifying data in a database. A DML is often a sublanguage of a broader database language such as SQL, with the DML comprising some of the operators in the language.
  • Database shard
    A database shard is a horizontal partition in a search engine or database. Each individual partition is known as shard or database shard. Each database shard is kept on a separate database server instance to help in spreading the load. Database shards are based on the fact that after a certain point it is feasible and cheaper to scale sites horizontally than vertically by adding more machines.
  • Datacenter
    A data center or data centre is a building, dedicated space within a building, or a group of buildings used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems
  • Dataflow
    A model of parallel computing in which programs are represented as dependence graphs and each operation is automatically blocked until the values on which it depends are available. The parallel functional and parallel logic programming models are very similar to the dataflow model.
  • DataRobot (Drobo)
    DataRobot (Drobo) is a total digital storage solution comprised of direct attached storage (DAS), network attached storage (NAS) and storage area network (SAN) devices. Drobo increases storage capacity without downtime by automatically distributing hard drive data between two or more device sources. Drobo also facilitates hard drive installation and removal without manual data migration. Drobo is manufactured by Data Robotics, Inc.
  • Date Range Filter
    Date-range filters is the ability to filter a report for a specific date range. For example, view a Goal’s conversion report when a marketing campaign was live for a week on the website.
  • DBMS
    Database Management System :A database management system (DBMS) is a software package designed to define, manipulate, retrieve and manage data in a database. A DBMS generally manipulates the data itself, the data format, field names, record structure and file structure. It also defines rules to validate and manipulate this data.A DBMS relieves users of framing programs for data maintenance. Fourth-generation query languages, such as SQL, are used along with the DBMS package to interact with a database.
  • DCL (Dom Content Loaded)
    DCL measures the time when the HTML document has been completely loaded and read. This exactly doesn’t mean that the web page has loaded, it just means that the main HTML of the page has been loaded completely. The page has to then finish loading the images and stylesheets to make the page fully accessible to the user.
  • DD4BC
    DD4BC is a cyber-extortion organization best recognized for using DDoS and requests from Bitcoin. The group starts by sending ransom emails that threaten DDoS attacks of 400 Gbps unless a certain amount of Bitcoin is paid.
  • DDoS
    A DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack is an attempt to exhaust a network, application or service\'s available resources so that genuine users can not obtain entry.
  • De-Index
    Contrary to popular belief, search engines aren\'t actually crawling the web when fetching these results—they\'re searching their index of the internet. Google\'s index is a list of webpages that have previously been crawled. In other words, when a web page is “indexed,” it has the potential to show up on search results.
  • Dead Code Elimination
    Dead code elimination is a compiler optimization to remove code which does not affect the program results. Removing such code has several benefits: it shrinks program size, an important consideration in some contexts, and it allows the running program to avoid executing irrelevant operations, which reduces its running time. It can also enable further optimizations by simplifying program structure. Dead code includes code that can never be executed, and code that only affects dead variables that is, irrelevant to the program
  • Dead end page
    Pages that include no links and require a visitor to click the back button in order to stay on a website. Dead end pages make is difficult for visitors to navigate a website and, as a result, visitors may be more inclined to exit the site.
  • Deadlock
    In concurrent computing, a deadlock is a state in which each member of a group is waiting for another member, including itself, to take action, such as sending a message or more commonly releasing a lock.
  • Deceptive Advertising
    Deceptive advertising is also known as False Advertising . It is the use of false, misleading or unproven information to advertise products to consumers. Ther advertising frequently does not disclose its source.
  • Decision Problem
    A problem whose solution, if any, is found by satisfying a set of constraints.
  • Declarative programming
    Declarative programming is a programming paradigm in which the programmer defines what needs to be accomplished by the program without defining how it needs to be implemented. In other words, the approach focuses on what needs to be achieved instead of instructing how to achieve it. It is different from an imperative program which has the command set to resolve a certain set of problems by describing the steps required to find the solution. Declarative programming describes a particular class of problems with language implementation taking care of finding the solution. The declarative programming approach helps in simplifying the programming behind some parallel processing applications.
  • Declustered
    A file system that distributes blocks of individual files between several disks. This contrasts with a traditional file system, in which all blocks of a single file are placed on the same disk.
  • Decomposition
    A division of a data structure into substructures that can be distributed separately, or a technique for dividing a computation into sub computations that can be executed separately. The most common decomposition strategies in parallel computing are: functional decomposition; geometric decomposition and iterative decomposition.
  • Deconvolutional Neural Network (DNN)
    A deconvolutional neural network is a neural network that performs an inverse convolution model. Some experts refer to the work of a deconvolutional neural network as constructing layers from an image in an upward direction, while others describe deconvolutional models as “reverse engineering” the input parameters of a convolutional neural network model. Deconvolutional neural networks are also known as deconvolutional networks, deconvs or transposed convolutional neural networks.
  • Dedicated short code
    Dedicated short code is a common short code (CSC) that is exclusively leased by one company and reserved for that company’s consumption over the entire lease duration.
  • Dedicated Throughput
    The number of results returned for a single job per time unit.
  • Deep Link
    Deep linking is the use of a hyperlink that links to a specific, generally searchable or indexed, piece of web content on a website rather than the website\'s home page.
  • Deep Q Networks (DQN)
    Deep Q Networks (DQN) are neural networks (and/or related tools) that utilize deep Q learning in order to provide models such as the simulation of intelligent video game play. Rather than being a specific name for a specific neural network build, Deep Q Networks may be composed of convolutional neural networks and other structures that use specific methods to learn about various processes.
  • Deep reinforcement learning
    Deep reinforcement learning is reinforcement learning that is applied using deep neural networks. This type of learning involves computers on acting on sophisticated models and looking at large amounts of input in order to determine an optimized path or action.
  • Default Page
    A value or setting that a device or program automatically selects if you do not specify a substitute. For example, word processors have default margins and default page lengths that you can override or reset. The default drive is the disk drive the computer accesses unless you specify a different disk drive.
  • Defective Links
    A defective link is a link that has no object or does not lead to anything. Causes for defective links include programming errors, temporarily unavailable websites or if the address of the site connected to by a link has changed. Defective links diminish the quality of a website and make the job of the crawler more difficult. For these reasons a website with defective links will appear lower down in search results.
  • Deflate
    Deflate is a lossless data compression file format that uses a combination of LZSS and Huffman coding. As stated in the RFC document, an algorithm producing deflate files was widely thought to be implementable in a manner not recovered by patents. This led to its widespread use.
  • Delayed Write Buffer
    When the kernel writes data to a buffer, it marks it as delayed-write. This means that the buffer must be written to disk before the buffer can be reused. Writing data to the buffer cache allows multiple updates to occur in memory rather than having to access the disk each time.
  • Delegate
    A delegate is an object-oriented, managed, secure and type-safe function pointer in the .NET framework. A delegate signature includes its name, return type and arguments passed to it. Rather than passing data, a delegate passes a method to another method. Delegates are used in many contexts, including implementing callbacks and event handlers, entry thread points and multiple types of method specifications. Because a delegate does not know the class of a referenced object, it is used for anonymous invocation.
  • Demand Driven
    A problem whose solution, if any, is found by satisfying a set of constraints.
  • Demarcation point
    A demarcation point is the physical point at which a telecommunications company\'s public network ends and the customer\'s private network begins. The demarcation point is often the point at which the cable physically enters the building, but this varies from one country to another. The demarcation point defines where the telephone company’s responsibility for maintenance ends and the consumer\'s responsibility begins. The demarcation point contains a surge suppressor to protect the wiring and connected equipment in a customer\'s home from external or internal damage. It also permits consumers to disconnect from the telephone company\'s wiring for troubleshooting. The demarcation point is also referred to as a network terminating interface or demarc.
  • Dependence Analysis
    In compiler theory, dependence analysis produces execution-order constraints between statements/instructions. Broadly speaking, a statement S2 depends on S1 if S1 must be executed before S2. Broadly, there are two classes of dependencies--control dependencies and data dependencies.
  • Dependence Graph
    In mathematics, computer science and digital electronics, a dependency graph is a directed graph representing dependencies of several objects towards each other. It is possible to derive an evaluation order or the absence of an evaluation order that respects the given dependencies from the dependency graph.
  • Deployment
    To deploy is to spread out or arrange strategically, deployment encompasses all the processes involved in getting new software or hardware up and running properly in its environment, including installation, configuration, running, properly in its environment including installation,configuration, running, testing, and making necessary changes.
  • Deprecated
    Deprecated code is code that is no longer included in the language specifications. Generally this happens because it is replaced with more accessible or efficient alternatives.
  • Design pattern
    A design pattern is a repeatable solution to a software engineering problem. Unlike most program-specific solutions, design patterns are used in many programs. Design patterns are not considered finished product; rather, they are templates that can be applied to multiple situations and can be improved over time, making a very robust software engineering tool. Because development speed is increased when using a proven prototype, developers using design pattern templates can improve coding efficiency and final product readability.
  • Deterministic
    An attribute of a section of code whereby the limit on the time required to execute the code is known, or determined, ahead of time. This is commonly associated with real-time software.
  • Deterministic algorithm
    A deterministic algorithm is an algorithm that is purely determined by its inputs, where no randomness is involved in the model. Deterministic algorithms will always come up with the same result given the same inputs.
  • Deterministic Model
    In mathematics, computer science and physics, a deterministic system is a system in which no randomness is involved in the development of future states of the system. A deterministic model will thus always produce the same output from a given starting condition or initial state.
  • Deterministic Optimization
    Deterministic global optimization is a branch of numerical optimization which focuses on finding the global solutions of an optimization problem whilst providing theoretical guarantees that the reported solution is indeed the global one, within some predefined tolerance.
  • Deterministic system
    A deterministic system is a system in which a given initial state or condition will always produce the same results. There is no randomness or variation in the ways that inputs get delivered as outputs.
  • DETFF (Dual Edge-Triggered FlipFlop)
    It allows one to maintain a constant throughput while operating at only half the clock frequency . In DETFF, the optimal delay, power consumption, and energy are determined as the primary figures of merit.
  • Device driver
    A device driver is a particular form of software application that is designed to enable interaction with hardware devices. Without the required device driver, the corresponding hardware device fails to work. A device driver usually communicates with the hardware by means of the communications subsystem or computer bus to which the hardware is connected. Device drivers are operating system-specific and hardware-dependent. A device driver acts as a translator between the hardware device and the programs or operating systems that use it. A device driver may also be called a software driver.
  • Device manager
    The device manager is a Control Panel applet within Windows operating systems since its introduction with Windows 95. It is used to view and manage all the hardware devices installed on a computer, such as hard drives, sound cards, USB devices, keyboards, and so on.
  • DHTML
    Stands for Dynamic HyperText Markup Language. DHTML fuses XHTML (or any other markup language), the DOM, JavaScript (or other scripts), and CSS (or other presentation definition languages) to create interactive web content.
  • Diameter
    The distance across a graph, measured by the number of links traversed. Diameter is usually taken to mean maximum diameter (ie the greatest internode distance in the graph, but it can also mean the average of all internode distances. Diameter is sometimes used as a measure of the goodness of a topology.
  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ, or DS)
    Differentiated Services (DiffServ, or DS) is a protocol for specifying and controlling network traffic by class so that certain types of traffic get precedence - for example, voice traffic, which requires a relatively uninterrupted flow of data, might get precedence over other kinds of traffic.
  • Digital Display Advertising
    Display advertising is advertising on websites or apps or social media through banners or other ad formats made of text, images, flash, video, and audio.The main purpose of display advertising is to deliver general advertisements and brand messages to site visitors.
  • Dime Store
    The dime store format also provided the impetus for some of the first chain stores and became an important outlet for American mass-manufactured merchandise.
  • Direct Competitors
    Direct competition is a situation in which two or more businesses offer products or services that are essentially the same; as such, the businesses are competing for the same potential market.
  • Direct Mapping
    A cache that has a set associativity of one so that each item has a unique place in the cache at which it can be stored.
  • Direct Mapping Access
    It allows devices on a bus to access memory without requiring intervention by the CPU.
  • Direct Method
    The direct method of teaching, which is sometimes called the natural method, and is often used in teaching foreign languages, refrains from using the learners\' native language and uses only the target language.
  • Direct Naming
    Direct naming a message passing scheme in which source and destination designators are the names of processes.
  • Directed Graph
    In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a directed graph is a graph that is made up of a set of vertices connected by edges, where the edges have a direction associated with them.
  • Directional attributes
    Directional attributes, in C#, are tags used to specify object method parameter(s) with information related to the directional flow of data between the caller and callee. Directional attributes control marshaling - where an object is prepared for transfer across an application or process boundary - of the method parameter\'s direction and return values. Directional attributes are applied to modify runtime marshaling while communicating managed code, which is executed by the Common Language Runtime (CLR), and unmanaged code, which is executed outside the control of the CLR.
  • Directional Clues
    Directional cues are visual elements of a website that are used to direct visitors’ attention to a specific area on the website (a CTA or an information box).
  • Directories
    In computing, a directory is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories. On many computers, directories are known as folders, or drawers,analogous to a workbench or the traditional office filing cabinet.
  • Dirty bit
    Dirty bit is a colloquial name for a specific bit in computer memory that traditional computing systems use to indicate a modification or write-to. Although there is not much information on the origin of this term, one could understand the concept of the dirty bit being a temporary place marker that will eventually be erased. A dirty bit is also known as a modified bit.
  • Dirty data
    Dirty data refers to data that contains erroneous information. It may also be used when referring to data that is in memory and not yet loaded into a database. The complete removal of dirty data from a source is impractical or virtually impossible. The following data can be considered as dirty data: Misleading data Duplicate data Incorrect data Inaccurate data Non-integrated data Data that violates business rules Data without a generalized formatting Incorrectly punctuated or spelled data
  • Disjoint Memory
    Memory that appears to the user to be divided amongst many separate address spaces. In a multicomputer, each processor typically has its own private memory and manages requests to it from processes running on other processors. Disjoint memory is more commonly called distributed memory, but the memory of many shared memories computers is physically distributed.
  • Disjunctive Rule
    A minimally acceptable cut off point is established for each attribute; The brands are evaluated, and, the brand that falls above the cut off point on any of the attributes is selected
  • Disk Buffer
    In computer storage, disk buffer is the embedded memory in a hard disk drive acting as a buffer between the rest of the computer and the physical hard disk platter that is used for storage. Modern hard disk drives come with 8 to 256 MiB of such memory, and solid-state drives come with up to 4 GB of cache memory.
  • Disk cache
    A disk cache is a cache memory that is used to speed up the process of storing and accessing data from the host hard disk. It enables faster processing of reading/writing, commands and other input and output process between the hard disk, the memory and computing components. A disk cache is also referred to as a disk buffer and cache buffer.
  • Disk Striping
    In computer data storage, data striping is the technique of segmenting logically sequential data, such as a file, so that consecutive segments are stored on different physical storage devices. Striping is useful when a processing device requests data more quickly than a single storage device can provide it.
  • Distress Merchandise
    Distress Merchandise refers to goods that are (or soon will be) past the point where they can be sold at anything close to normal prices.This includes perishable, unfashionable, damaged, and unseasonal merchandise that still may have some market value.
  • Distributed (Remote) testing
    Distributed Testing is a kind of testing which use multiple systems to perform Stress Testing. Distributed testing is applied for testing websites and server applications when they are working with multiple clients simultaneously. Distributed testing is used when the single JMeter engine cannot create the required number of virtual users (threads) for the test.
  • Distributed cache
    Distributed cache is an extension to the traditional concept of caching where data is placed in a temporary storage locally for quick retrieval. A distributed cache is more cloud computing in scope, meaning that different machines or servers contribute a portion of their cache memory into a large pool that can be accessed by multiple nodes and virtual machines. The concept and meaning of caching here remain the same; it is only the process of creating the large pool of cache that is relatively new in concept and technology.
  • Distributed Computer
    Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a system whose components are located on different networked computers, which communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages to one another.
  • Distributed computing
    Distributed computing is a computing concept that, in its most general sense, refers to multiple computer systems working on a single problem. In distributed computing, a single problem is divided into many parts, and each part is solved by different computers. As long as the computers are networked, they can communicate with each other to solve the problem. If done properly, the computers perform like a single entity. The ultimate goal of distributed computing is to maximize performance by connecting users and IT resources in a cost-effective, transparent and reliable manner. It also ensures fault tolerance and enables resource accessibility in the event that one of the components fails.
  • Distributed Interrupts
    The Distributed Interrupt Controller is a single functional unit that is placed in the system alongside MP11 CPUs. This enables the number of interrupts supported in the system to be independent of the MP11 CPU design.
  • Distributed Memory
    In computer science, distributed memory refers to a multiprocessor computer system in which each processor has its own private memory. Computational tasks can only operate on local data, and if the remote data is required, the computational task must communicate with one or more remote processors.
  • Distribution Channel
    Distribution channel or supply network is a pattern of temporal and spatial processes carried out at facility nodes and over distribution links, which adds value for customers through the manufacturing and delivery of products.
  • Distribution Metrics
    Distribution metrics are the performance indicators that help the people concerned to obtain maximum volume that passes through the sales and distribution network. Marketing managers have distribution metrics at their disposal when they want to reveal the percentage of market their brand has encapsulated.
  • Divide and Conquer
    In computer science, divide and conquer is an algorithm design paradigm based on multi-branched recursion. A divide-and-conquer algorithm works by recursively breaking down a problem into two or more sub-problems of the same or related type, until these become simple enough to be solved directly,
  • DLCI
    Data Link connection Identifier is a Frame Relay 10-bit-wide link-local virtual circuit identifier used to assign frames to a specific PVC or SVC. Frame Relay networks use DLCIs to statistically multiplex frames. DLCIs are preloaded into each switch and act as road signs to the traveling frames.
  • DML (Data Manipulation Language)
    A data manipulation language is a computer programming language used for adding, deleting and modifying data in a database. A DML is often a sublanguage of a broader database language such as SQL, with the DML comprising some of the operations in the language.
  • DNA
    Digital Network Architecture is digital equipment corporation’s proprietary digital network architecture, DECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation., in order to connect two PDP-11 minicomputers, it evolved into one of the first peer-to-peer network architectures, thus transforming DEC into a networking powerhouse it later evolved into a seven-layer OSI-compliant networking protocol.
  • DNS (Domain Name Systems)
    The Domain Name Systems (DNS) is the phonebook of the Internet. Humans access information online through domain names, like nytimes.com or espn.com. Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so browsers can load Internet resources.
  • DNS Amplification
    It is a reflective volumetric continuous denial-of-service (DDoS) assault in which an attacker leverages the accessible DNS resolver features to overwhelm a target server or network with increased requests, making the server and its surrounding infrastructure inaccessible.
  • DNS prefetching
    DNS prefetching allows the browser to perform the DNS lookups for links on a page in the background while the user browses the current page. This minimizes latency as when the user clicks on a link with DNS prefetch enabled, they do not have to wait for the DNS lookup to take place as it already has.
  • DNS recursor
    The DNS recursor is a server designed to receive queries from client machines through applications such as web browsers. Typically the recursor is then responsible for making additional requests in order to satisfy the client’s DNS query.
  • Do Not Track
    Do not track is a browser setting that communicates to websites that visitor’s internet usage should not be tracked by analytics tools, although many websites might still collect some data to improve security, serve relevant ads, and so on.
  • DOCTYPE
    The doctype declaration specifies which version of HTML is used in a document. It has a direct effect on whether your HTML will validate.
  • DOM (Document Object Model)
    The Document Object Model is a cross- platform and language- independent interface that treats an XML or HTML document as a tree structure wherein each node is an object representing a part of the document.The DOM content loaded, this is when the HTML is completely loaded and parsed. So some really good ones to keep an eye on and just to be aware of in general.
  • DOM Nodes
    The number of DOM nodes is a rough measure of the amount of HTML content on the page. It refers to how many elements or tags (

    ,

    , , etc.) the page contains. While the number of DOM nodes doesn’t affect network performance, it does affect browser performance. A browser will take a longer time to parse, process, and render a page if it has more nodes.

  • Domain
    A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet. Domain names are used in various networking contexts and application-specific naming and addressing purposes.
  • Domain Decomposition
    In mathematics, numerical analysis, and numerical partial differential equations, domain decomposition methods solve a boundary value problem by splitting it into smaller boundary value problems on subdomains and iterating to coordinate the solution between adjacent subdomains.
  • Domain Forwarding
    Domain forwarding is similar to when a web page redirects a visitor to another website, but instead of using HTML or a script to do the redirection, the domain name itself redirects to the website. When a domain is set to forward visitors to another website, the domain\'s name does not stay in the web browser\'s URL bar.
  • Domain Sharding
    When a site is \"sharded,\" its resources are deliberately split across multiple domains to allow accelerated loading. This is mainly an obsolete method and will be further obsolete with the adoption of HTTP 2.0.
  • Domain Trust
    The domain trust of a website describes its trustworthiness and integrity. There is no single, accepted calculation method for this key figure. Google and providers of SEO software use several metrics to determine domain trust. The quality of the links as well as the quality of the content are considered important elements when calculating the domain trust metric. A high domain trust is considered a ranking advantage in search results.
  • Doorway Page
    Doorway pages are web pages that are created for the deliberate manipulation of search engine indexes. A doorway page will affect the index of a search engine by inserting results for particular phrases while sending visitors to a different page
  • DoS (Denial of Service)
    Dos are attacks that prevent or slow authorized access to a system resource (including web sites, web-based applications and databases), generally by making a sufficient number of demands on available capacity to overwhelm a system\'s ability to process information. DDoS attacks may be carried out by a single individual or a group of individuals, sometimes using \'bots\' or computers that have been co-opted into making bogus requests on a target system.
  • Double Opt-in
    A double opt-in occurs when a user signs up for an email marketing list, and then an email is sent out to the user which includes a link to click and confirm the subscription. Only after the confirmation click is completed the user will officially be added to the email marketing list. By using a double opt-in confirmation method, the chance of spam addresses in the deployment list will be greatly reduced.
  • Double-Ended Queue (Deque)
    A double-ended queue is a special type of data in the field of computer programming. In this abstract data type, elements can be added from both the front and the back of the queue. Due to this property, it is also known as a head-tail linked list. In this, the queue actually symbolizes a collection of items arranged similarly to a line with two ends. Items can be added or removed from either end without any type of restrictions. Many programming languages use this technique due to its many applications. A double-ended queue is also known as a deque or a dequeue (pronounced “deck”).
  • Download Manager
    A Download Manager is a software application, generally housed or placed on a client machine or device, which is responsible for downloading files, applications and media from the Internet.
  • Drill Down
    In information technology to drill down means to request further information on a specific subject. In a GUI-environment, drilling down may involve clicking on a link or other representation to reveal more detail.Drilling down through a database involves accessing information by starting with a general category and requesting more specific information through successive database queries, with each query informing the next, and increasing data granularity.
  • Drop-Off
    Drop-off is a field-level metric in a form analytics report that shows the number of visitors that dropped-off from filling up the form from that specific field.
  • Dropped Packets
    Dropped packet or Packet loss occurs when one or more packets of data travelling across a computer network fail to reach their destination. Packet loss is either caused by errors in data transmission, typically across wireless networks, or network congestion. Packet loss is measured as a percentage of packets lost with respect to packets sent.
  • DS 0
    Digital Signal 0 is a basic digital signaling rate of 64 kilobits per second, corresponding to the capacity of one analog voice-frequency-equivalent communication channel.The DS0 rate, and its equivalents E0 in the E-carrier system and T0 in the T-carrier system, form the basis for the digital multiplex transmission hierarchy in telecommunications systems.
  • DS 1
    Digital service hierarchy level 1 with a maximum channel capacity of 1.544Mbps. This term is used interchangeably with T1. 24 DS-0 channels per DS1.
  • DS 3
    Digital service hierarchy level 3 with a maximum channel capacity of 44.736. This term is used interchangeably with T3. 28 DS1 channels per DS3.
  • dual inline memory module (DIMM)
    A dual inline memory module (DIMM) is a small-scale circuit board that holds memory chips on the motherboard. DIMM incorporates a series of memory called dynamic random access memory (DRAM), which provides primary storage, the main memory that continually reads and executes stored instructions or data directly to the CPU. DIMM is an attempt to improve on the earlier single inline memory module (SIMM), which used matched pairs. DIMM uses only one circuit board, thus increasing memory speed and storage. DIMM also has a much smaller circuit board and easier insertion compared to SIMM.
  • Duplicate content
    When multiple URLs serve the same page. Duplicate content across different URLs on a website leads to poor placement in the search results because they waste search engine resources by collecting and processing identical content. Common types of duplicate pages are printable or text-only versions of the main page, or redirects to login pages intended for your site’s visitors that also return a “You must log in” page to crawlers.
  • Durability
    Product Durability is predicted by good reparibility and regenerability in conjunction with maintenance. Every durable product must be capable of adapting to technical, technological and design developments . This must be accompanied by a willingness on the part of consumers to forego having the very latest version of product.
  • Dusty Deck
    A term applied to old programs (usually Fortran or Cobol). The term is derived from the image of a deck of punched cards grown dusty over the years.
  • Dwell Time
    In information retrieval, dwell time denotes the time a user spends viewing a document after clicking a link on a search engine results page. Dwell time is the duration between when a user clicks on a search engine result, and when the user returns from that result, or is otherwise seen to have left the result.
  • Dynamic Channel Naming
    Dynamic Channel naming a message passing scheme allowing source and destination designators to be established at run time.
  • Dynamic content
    Dynamic content is something that is either customized to the user or modified in real time on a web page. For performance, it is an important distinction, as dynamic content must always be retrieved from its origin rather than cached. This means that optimization is difficult.
  • Dynamic data
    Dynamic data is data that is changed when information is updated. For example, session variables connected to authentication mechanisms. This affects website recording, as JMeter needs to know how to capture this dynamic data and reuse it in subsequent requests. Otherwise, playing back the recording will show many errors. This is where Correlations come in. Correlations are the fetching of dynamic data from preceding requests and posting it to subsequent requests. In JMeter, various post-processors can be used for extracting the dynamic data from responses and used in subsequent requests.
  • Dynamic DDL (Data Definition Language)
    The ability to change the definition of a database (its schema) after data has been stored in the database without having to take the database off-line or restructure its files.
  • Dynamic Decomposition
    Dynamic Decomposition is a task allocation policy that assumes tasks are generated at execution time.
  • Dynamic function loading (DFL)
    Dynamic function loading (DFL) is the ability to specify the default routines that are compiled and loaded into memory when a program is launched. Because many applications contain features that may not be used, DFL\'s ability to select only dependent programs increases the speed of a program\'s initial opening time. DFL is also known as lazy loading.
  • Dynamic Link Library (DLL)
    A dynamic link library (DLL) is a shared program module with ordered code, methods, functions, enums and structures that may be dynamically called by an executing program during run time. A DLL usually has a file extension ending in .dll. Other file extensions are .drv and .ocx. DLLs were developed by Microsoft and work only with the Windows operating system (OS).
  • Dynamic Structured Query Language (SQL)
    Dynamic Structured Query Language (SQL) is a SQL version that facilitates the generation of dynamic (or variable) program queries. Dynamic SQL allows a programmer to write code that automatically adjusts to varying databases, environments, servers or variables. Dynamic SQL statements are not embedded in the source program but stored as strings of characters that are manipulated during a program\'s runtime. These SQL statements are either entered by the programmer or automatically generated by the program. This is the major difference between dynamic SQL and static SQL statements. Dynamic SQL statements also may change from one execution to the next without manual intervention. Dynamic SQL facilitates automatic generation and manipulation of program modules for efficient automated repeating task preparation and performance.
  • Dynamic URL
    A dynamic URL is the address - or Uniform Resource Locator (URL) - of a Web page with content that depends on variable parameters that are provided to the server that delivers it. The parameters may be already present in the URL itself or they may be the result of user input. A dynamic URL can often be recognized by the presence of certain characters or character strings that appear in the URL (visible in the address bar of your browser). The following are representative: & $ + = ? % cgi
  • E Cube Routing
    E Cube Routing method that employs xy- routing algorithm . This is commonly referred to as Deterministic, Dimension ordered Routing model. Ecube routing works by traversing the network in the Kth dimension where K is the least significant Non Zero bit in the result of calculating distance.
  • E2E (End 2 End ) Page Load Performance
    End to End page load performance measures the performance of a page from the initial request for the base HTML document to the loading and render of the final asset, including any assets that are delivered late or lazy loaded such as 3rd party marketing tags. As such it’s a useful number to know, but not indicative of real user experience.
  • Eager Evaluation
    In computer programming, eager evaluation, also known as strict evaluation or greedy evaluation, is the evaluation strategy used by most traditional programming languages. In eager evaluation, an expression is evaluated as soon as it is bound to a variable.
  • ECommerce Optimization
    Ecommerce optimization is defined as a system-wide improvement of your ecommerce store so that all focus is put into the facilitation of greater and faster sales. The average ecommerce conversion rate falls between 1% and 3% on a global scale.
  • Edge Computing
    Edge computing is a networking philosophy that aims to bring computing as close as possible to the database to decrease latency and bandwidth use. Simply put, edge computing implies operating fewer cloud processes and transferring those processes to local locations, such as a user\'s desktop, an IoT device, or an edge server.
  • Editorial Link
    An editorial link is a link that results from a site having good content and marketing techniques. An editorial link is not paid for or directly requested, as is the case with acquired links. Editorial links are part of a strong link profile.
  • Effect Size
    Effect size is the magnitude of the difference between a hypothesized and an observed value of a parameter. The parameter is usually an unknown variable theta (θ) and can be either a primary KPI or secondary KPI.
  • Effective Bandwidth
    Effective bandwidth is the frequency interval where the start and end frequencies correspond to the half of the particle velocity at the design frequency (3dB bandwidth).the effective bandwidths can be found by an analytical expression. In many situations, however, the effective bandwidth has to be determined by estimation from traffic data.
  • Elapsed Time
    Elapsed time is measured by the time from the first moment of sending the data and the time of the last byte of the received response. Elapsed time – Latency time = Download Time
  • Elastic block flash (EBF)
    Elastic block flash (EBF) is a scalable storage solution designed for high availability and reliability. The use of flash storage allows elastic block flash to function as a storage array with enhanced read/write performance capability. Elastic block flash is used in super converged networks to provide fast I/O storage action for cloud computing environments.
  • Elastic layout
    An elastic layout is one that uses percentages and ems for widths paired with a max-width style to allow the site layout to stretch when font sizes are changed. It’s ability to flex to accommodate the browser width and reader’s font preferences are where it gets its name.
  • Elastic Search
    Elasticsearch is a search engine based on the Lucene library. It provides a distributed, multitenant-capable full-text search engine with an HTTP web interface and schema-free JSON documents. Elasticsearch is developed in Java.
  • Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM)
    Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) is a stable, non-volatile memory storage system that is used for storing minimal data quantities in computer and electronic systems and devices, such as circuit boards. This data may be stored, even without a permanent power source, as device configuration or calibration tables.If storing higher volumes of data that is static (like in USB drives), certain types of EEPROM (like flash memory) are more cost-effective than conventional EEPROM devices.
  • ELEMENT
    In XML, an element is the central building block of any document. Individual elements can contain text, other elements, or both.
  • Elements List
    Element list is a report type under website heatmaps that shows the list of elements on a page sorted by its relative importance in terms of clicks it has received.
  • EM
    EM is a unit of measurement for sizing fonts and other elements within a web page relative to the item’s parent element. A 1em font is equal to the point size for the font already defined in the parent element (2em would be twice the current size; .5em would be half the current size).
  • Email Testing:
    Email A/B Testing consists of applying principles of A/B testing two versions of a web page, to two versions of an email campaign. One might change the headline, content, layout, CTA, or any other number of elements to decide which performs best in terms of KPIs like open or click rate.
  • Embedded analytics
    Embedded analytics is the process of embedding analytics and reporting capabilities within a device or information system. It provides data and process analysis capabilities natively into the underlying information system. It is generally embedded with transactional process systems and applications.
  • Embedded Database
    Embedded database system is a database management system. Which is tightly integrated with an application software that requires access to stored data, such that the database system is “hidden” from the applications end user and requires little or no ongoing maintenance.
  • Embedded software
    Embedded software is a piece of software that is embedded in hardware or non-PC devices. It is written specifically for the particular hardware that it runs on and usually has processing and memory constraints because of the device’s limited computing capabilities. Examples of embedded software include those found in dedicated GPS devices, factory robots, some calculators and even modern smartwatches.
  • Embedded SQL
    Embedded SQL is a method of inserting inline SQL statements or queries into the code of a programming language, which is known as a host language. Because the host language cannot parse SQL, the inserted SQL is parsed by an embedded SQL preprocessor. Embedded SQL is a robust and convenient method of combining the computing power of a programming language with SQL\'s specialized data management and manipulation capabilities.
  • Embedded style
    An embedded style is a CSS style written into the head of an XHTML document. It only affects the elements on that page, instead of site-wide as a separate CSS file does. Style in an embedded style sheet will override styles from the linked CSS file.
  • Emitter
    Coupled Logic:In electronics, emitter-coupled logic is a high-speed integrated circuit bipolar transistor logic family. ECL uses an overdriven BJT differential amplifier with single-ended input and limited emitter current to avoid the saturated region of operation and its slow turn-off behavior.
  • Encrypted file transfer
    Encrypted file transfer is the process of encrypting a file before transmitting it over a network, Internet and/or remote server. It is done to secure a file and hide its content from being viewed or extracted by anyone except the receiver or sender.
  • Endpoint authentication
    Endpoint authentication is an authentication mechanism used to verify the identity of a network\'s external or remote connecting device. This method ensures that only valid or authorized endpoint devices are connected to a network. These endpoint devices include laptops, smartphones, tablets and servers.
  • Endurance (Soak) testing
    Endurance Testing is a type of performance test that verifies a system’s stability and performance characteristics over an extended period of time. It is typical in this type of performance test to maintain a certain level of user concurrency for an extended period of time. This type of test can identify issues relating to memory allocation, log file handles, and database resource utilization. Endurance testing is a subset of load testing. An endurance test is a type of performance test focused on determining or validating the performance characteristics of the product under test when subjected to workload. The execution time duration can be set in the schedule section in JMeter thread groups.
  • Engagement Metrics
    As a website owner, you should be familiar with the concept of analytics. Through your analytics package you can determine bounce rates for your landing pages and keywords, visit duration, and page views plus many other things.Engagement metrics automates this process. They allow you to see what is engaging your users by utilizing a composite engagement index.
  • Enhanced Ecommerce Report
    Enhanced Ecommerce Reports (EER) is a feature available in the Universal Analytics version of Google Analytics. EER allows for using GA to track many more features than just regular Ecommerce reports, including the ability to measure refunds. By using EER you can gain a more accurate understanding of how your company is doing precisely
  • Enlightenment
    An optimization to a guest operating system to make it aware of virtual machine environments and tune its behavior for virtual machines.
  • Ensemble programming
    Ensemble programming refers to the programming techniques and tools which are used for an integrated application development that is capable of transcending various interfaces and devices. It combines the advanced technologies of mobile application development (AD) and Web development to create user interfaces that can provide a seamless and high-quality user experience that is not limited to a single device. Designers employ various techniques and tools to make ensemble programming work and must take into consideration the various factors involved for providing such a uniform user experience.
  • Enterprise application integration (EAI)
    Enterprise application integration (EAI) is the use of technologies and services across an enterprise to enable the integration of software applications and hardware systems. Many proprietary and open projects provide EAI solution support. EAI is related to middleware technologies. Other developing EAI technologies involve Web service integration, service-oriented architecture, content integration and business processes.
  • Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM)
    Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) is an enterprise-wide and centrally panel managed system of processes and survey software that facilitates data collection, authoring, statistical analysis and reporting. EFM involves a workflow process ensuring quality surveys consistently administered with assured privacy through IT security policies. EFM’s purpose is to facilitate communication and dialog between the enterprise and employees, customers, and business partners to address key issues and concerns. Potentially, this can make possible real time customer interventions.
  • Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a method of efficiently utilizing people, hardware and software to increase productivity and profit, thus simplifying a company’s business processes. ERP may include many software applications or a single (but more complex) software package that smoothly disseminates data required by two or more unique business departments.
  • Entry page
    The first page that a visitor arrives at on a website from another domain.
  • Enumeration Sort
    Enumeration sort is a method of arranging all the elements in a list by finding the final position of each element in a sorted list. It is done by comparing each element with all other elements and finding the number of elements having smaller value
  • Environment variables
    Environment variables are values that impact the processes and behavior of running computer systems and OS environments. Running programs may access environment variable values for configuration purposes.
  • EPIC
    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing is a 64-bit microprocessor instruction set, jointly defined and designed by Hewlett Packard and Intel, that provides up to 128 general and floating point unit registers and uses speculative loading, predication, and explicit parallelism to accomplish its computing tasks.
  • Equipment footprint
    Equipment footprint refers to the physical space a computing device or equipment requires when being placed or deployed within a home, office or computing facility. It is generally equated in terms of size in square feet / meters of area that the device will consume in a physical location and its impact on the overall space.
  • Equivalence partitioning (EP)
    Equivalence partitioning (EP) is a method for testing software programs. In this technique, the data fed into the software to be tested is divided into partitions of equal sizes. From each partition of data, one test case is needed. The different test cases must test the classes of the software continuously. This helps in the discovery of errors and bugs which may plague the software. Each test case is defined specifically to check a specific type of error. This speeds up the error hunting process as fewer test cases are required. Equivalence partitioning is also known as equivalence class partitioning (ECP).
  • Error correction code (ECC)
    Error correction code (ECC) checks read or transmitted data for errors and correct them as soon as they are found. ECC is similar to parity checking except that it corrects errors immediately upon detection. ECC is becoming more common in the field of data storage and network transmission hardware, especially with the increase of data rates and corresponding errors.
  • Error Probability
    In statistics, an error probability is the frequency with which a certain probabilistic testing procedure will lead to a type I error or a type II error. In other words, it is the rate of occurrence of an error in a hypothetical infinite repetition of the procedure.
  • Error Rate
    The error rate is a calculation that measures the percentage of problem requests (errors) compared to all requests. Error rates should be measured with different loads. An acceptable error rate may differ from company to company, but this metric helps businesses and IT managers understand pinpoint when the application will fail.
  • Error Spending Function
    An error-spending function is a function that governs the cumulative type I or type II error that is \"spent\" at each analysis time during a sequential testing online experiment. A function that governs the rate at which the type I error (alpha) is spent is called and Alpha-Spending while one which controls the rate at which the type II error (beta) is spent is called Beta-Spending.
  • ES-IS
    End System-to-Intermediate System is a routing protocol developed by the international organization for Standardization as part of their Open Systems interconnections model. In the OSI Context, an end system is a node or user device. ES-IS allows a node or user device located in a particular subnetwork to determine the existence and availability of other nodes or user devices on the same subnetwork
  • Escape sequence
    In C#, an escape sequence refers to a combination of characters beginning with a backslash (\\) followed by letters or digits. Escape sequences represent non-printable and special characters in character and literal strings. As such, they allow users to communicate with a display device or printer by sending non-graphical control characters to specify actions like question marks and carriage returns. An escape sequence is used when writing sections of code, like preprocessor definitions, to specify continuation characters, so that multiple lines of code are considered as a single line by the compiler. Regular expressions that help perform sophisticated string search operations use escape sequences to locate substrings within a large string. By enabling quoted strings, escape sequences may be used to create output files containing text template tags and files.
  • Ethernet
    Ethernet is the traditional technology for connecting wired local area networks (LANs), enabling devices to communicate with each other via a protocol -- a set of rules or common network language. An Ethernet cable is the physical, encased wiring over which the data travels.
  • Ethical worm
    An ethical worm is a type of software that is replicated and sent to various systems over the Internet, in order to fix security vulnerabilities or provide security patches. Companies may offer an ethical worm in order to promote speedier universal closure of some kind of security loophole, when individual system administrators may not act quickly enough to protect their systems against a threat.
  • ETL
    “ETL” – Extract, Transform, Load – describes a process in which data is extracted from one system, transformed and loaded into another system. In the context of Process Mining, data is first extracted, then transformed, and then loaded into a Process Mining tool.
  • Event Log
    Events are listed together with their attributes in an event log. Attributes that are typically listed are the case ID, the timestamps of the start and end times, and other attributes of the event recorded by the IT system. An event log thus represents one or more cases of a business process. An event log can also be the documentation of several related business processes.
  • Event queue
    An event queue is a repository where events from an application are held prior to being processed by a receiving program or system. Event queues are often used in the context of an enterprise messaging system.
  • Event Tracking
    Event tracking is a method that is available in Google Analytics. It lets you record user interactions with various web elements like a menu system driven by Flash. You can do this by attaching a piece of code to an element in the website.
  • Events per second (EPS)
    Events per second (EPS) is a term used in IT management to define the number of events or processes that take place in a given time on any IT appliance. EPS is a method to review and evaluate the usability statistics of a hardware device, software application, network medium or hardware, Internet application, and/or a security device/appliance.
  • Eventual Consistency
    Eventual consistency is a consistency model used in distributed computing to achieve high availability that informally guarantees that, if no new updates are made to a given data item, eventually all accesses to that item will return the last updated value
  • Executable (.EXE)
    An executable refers to a file containing instructions and data meant for performing a sequence of tasks on a computer. The contents of the executable file must be interpreted by an operating system to a meaningful machine code instructions to be used by physical central processing unit (CPU). An executable can also be a file comprised of commands for a software compiler to execute. Even a VB or Java script or any other script language source file may also be considered an executable.
  • Execute Disable Bit (EDB)
    An execute disable bit is an Intel hardware-based security component used in the central processing unit (CPU) to separate areas of a memory as storage of processor instructions or as storage of data. EDB classifies areas in memory where a code can execute or not execute. It is a basic input/output system (BIOS) feature, which if enabled reduces a computer system, or a server’s, vulnerability to viruses and malicious code attacks. Thus, EDB prevents these harmful viruses and malicious software from executing and spreading on a server or network. EDB is also abbreviated as XDB. Intel markets EDB feature as XD bit. The EDB feature is only available in the most-up-to-date versions of Intel processors, but not all operating systems (OSs) support it. This term is also known as NX-bit, the name used by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).
  • Execute the tests
    Run and monitor your tests. Validate the tests, test data, and results collection. Execute validated tests for analysis while monitoring the test and the test environment.
  • Executing
    Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or virtual machine executes the instructions of a computer program. ... In this case, the \"commands\" are simply program instructions, whose execution is chained together. The term run is used almost synonymously.
  • Exit code
    An exit code or exit status is a number that is returned by an executable to show whether it was successful. This is also sometimes called a return code, or in some cases, an error code, although the terminology here may be slightly different.
  • Exit page
    The last page that a visitor accesses during a visit before leaving a website.
  • Exit pop-up
    Exit pop-up is a pop-up that is displayed on the screens of website visitors as soon as they show an intent to leave the website. Exit pop-ups generally carry some sort of incentive for visitors, encouraging them to engage more with the website.
  • Exit Rate
    Sometimes confused with bounce rate. Exit rate is a digital marketing term used to indicate the percentage of visitors to a site who actively click away to a different site from a specific page. These visitors may have visited other pages on the site prior to exiting, which distinguishes them from ‘bounced’ visitors.
  • Exit Survey
    Exit survey is a small set of questions that ask visitors about their website experience when they try to leave the website.
  • Expand
    In performance Optimization a vector computer instruction that stores the elements of a vector according to the values in a corresponding masking vector
  • expanded memory specification (EMS)
    An expanded memory specification (EMS) was a technique introduced in about 1984 for expanding the conventional or main memory beyond 1 MB in IBM XT compatible computers. The process was known as bank switching and involved expanding memory beyond that which was directly addressed by the processor. EMS was designed for disk operating system (DOS) software programs requiring the additional memory. EMS is also known as expanded memory, LIM EMS, LIM 4.0 or EMS 4.0.
  • Expected Space Complexity
    In computer science, the space complexity of an algorithm or a computer program is the amount of memory space required to solve an instance of the computational problem as a function of the size of the input. It is the memory required by an algorithm to execute a program and produce output.
  • Expected Time Complexity
    Intuitively, Average Time Complexity refers to the typical behavior of the algorithm, averaged over all possible inputs. Expected Time Complexity refers to typical behavior of the algorithm, given an adversarial input distribution.If we take the worst-case in both, we get \"Worst-Case Time Complexity\".
  • Experience Optimization
    Experience optimization is the process of testing and optimizing a website so that visitors get the best possible experience across all touchpoints throughout the website journey.
  • Exploratory stress testing
    Exploratory stress testing is an approach to subjecting a system, application, or component to a set of unusual parameters or conditions that are unlikely to occur in the real world but are nevertheless possible. In general, exploratory testing can be viewed as an interactive process of simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution. Most often, exploratory stress tests are designed by modifying existing tests and/or working with application/system administrators to create unlikely but possible conditions in the system. This type of stress testing is seldom conducted in isolation because it is typically conducted to determine if more systematic stress testing is called for related to a particular failure mode.
  • Extended system configuration data (ESCD)
    Extended system configuration data (ESCD) is a portion of the nonvolatile basic input/output system (BIOS) memory (also known as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) memory) on a personal computer motherboard. This is also where the ISA PnP device data is located. ESCD is employed by the BIOS to assign resources for hardware extensions, commonly called expansion cards.
  • Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
    Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a point-to-point (P2P) wireless and local area network (LAN) data communication framework providing a variety of authentication mechanisms. EAP is used to authenticate simple dialup and LAN connections. Its major scope is wireless network communication such as access points used to authenticate client-wireless/LAN network systems.
  • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
    Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a universal format, maintained by the W3C, used for representation and transfer of structured data on the web or between different applications.
  • Extensible Metadata Platform
    Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) is an ISO standard, originally created by Adobe Systems Inc. for the creation, processing and interchange of standardized and custom metadata for digital documents and data sets.
  • External cache
    An external cache is any cache memory or type of central processing unit (CPU) cache that is housed, placed or installed external to a computer processor. It provides high speed data storage and processing services to the computer processor, its primary/native cache and the main memory. External cache is also known as secondary cache.
  • External Gateway Protocol
    The Exterior Gateway Protocol is a routing protocol for the Internet originally specified in 1982 by Eric C. Rosen of Bolt, Beranek and Newman, and David L. Mills. Exterior Gateway Protocol is a protocol for exchanging routing information between two neighbor gateway hosts in a network of autonomous systems.
  • EXTERNAL STYLE SHEET
    This is a CSS document that is written in a separate, external document. The biggest advantage to using an external style sheet is that it can be linked to by multiple HTML/XHTML files (which means changes made to the style sheet will affect all the pages linked to it without having to change each page individually).
  • Extreme Programming (XP)
    Extreme Programming (XP) is an intense, disciplined and agile software development methodology focusing on coding within each software development life cycle (SDLC) stage.
  • Eye Flow
    Eye flow is the study of visitors’ eye movements while browsing a website. Eye flow helps to track areas that visitors view or discard the most.
  • Eyetracking
    Eyetracking is a form of website testing that follows eye movements of experiments\' participants to gauge how they interact with web pages. This provides insight into the most important real estate on your pages.
  • Factorial Design
    A factorial design is a type of online controlled experiment in which the outcome of interest is the contribution of individual factors to a variable of interest (often a KPI) and not higher-order interactions between these factors.
  • Fail-fast
    In systems design, a fail-fast system is one which immediately report at its interface any condition that is likely to indicate a failure. Fail-fast systems are usually designed to stop normal operation rather than attempt to continue a possibly flawed process. Such designs often check the system\'s state at several points in an operation, so any failures can be detected early.
  • Failure semantics
    In distributed computing, failure semantics is used to describe and classify errors that distributed systems can experience.
  • Failure transparency
    In a distributed system, failure transparency refers to the extent to which errors and subsequent recoveries of hosts and services within the system are invisible to users and applications. For example, if a server fails, but users are automatically redirected to another server and never notice the failure, the system is said to exhibit high failure transparency.
  • Fast Packet
    In telecommunications, fast packet switching is a variant of packet switching that increases the throughput by eliminating the overhead associated with flow control and error correction functions, which are either offloaded to upper layer networking protocols or removed altogether.
  • Fault tolerance
    Fault tolerance is the way in which an operating system (OS) responds to a hardware or software failure. The term essentially refers to a system’s ability to allow for failures or malfunctions, and this ability may be provided by software, hardware or a combination of both. To handle faults gracefully, some computer systems have two or more duplicate systems.
  • FAVICON
    Favicons are tiny (generally 16x16 pixels, though some are 32x32 pixels), customizable icons displayed in the web address bar in most browsers next to the web address. They’re either 8-bit or 24-bit color depth and are saved in either .ico, .gif or .png file formats.
  • FCP (First Contentful Paint)
    FCP measures the actual time that is taken by a user of the website to see a visual response from the page he is trying to open. It the page loads fast then it will help in keeping the visitor engaged. If not the visitor shall lose interest and shall leave the page. Load time will be very fast i.e. less than 0.4 seconds.
  • FDDI
    Fiber Distributed Data Interface is a standard for data transmission in a local area network. It uses optical fiber as its standard underlying physical medium, although it was also later specified to use copper cable, in which case it may be called CDDI, standardized as TP-PMD, also referred to as TP-DDI.
  • Feature Flags
    Feature flags are a software development technique that turns certain functionality on and off, without deploying new code. This allows for better control and more experimentation over the full lifecycle of features.The idea behind feature flags is to build conditional feature branches into code in order to make logic available only to certain groups of users at a time. If the flag is “on,” new code is executed, if the flag is “off,” the code is skipped.
  • Feature Rollout
    A feature rollout is the software development process of introducing a new feature to a set of users.In the not so recent past, software was rolled out once every week or two, with a number of changes being bundled together, and then monitored. If anything broke, it might necessitate a full roll-back while engineers investigated the issue.
  • Feature Rollout
    A feature rollout is the software development process of introducing a new feature to a set of users. A feature rollout process involves planning, scheduling, controlling and testing a feature release through different stages and environments
  • Feature Testing
    A Software feature can be defined as the changes made in the system to add new functionality or modify the existing functionality. Each feature is said to have a characteristic that is designed to be useful, intuitive and effective. In reality, a new test set is created for testing that feature corresponding to that cycle of that release. The extremely important and generally used new features ought to be tested thoroughly in each build of that release and also regression testing should be done relevant to those areas.
  • Featured Snippets
    The Featured Snippets are a format which is supposed to provide users with a concise, direct answer to their questions – right there on the search results page, without the users having to click through to a specific result.
  • Feedforward neural network
    The feedforward neural network is a specific type of early artificial neural network known for its simplicity of design. The feedforward neural network has an input layer, hidden layers and an output layer. Information always travels in one direction – from the input layer to the output layer – and never goes backward.
  • FEO ( Front end optimisation )
    Front-end performance refers to how fast the browser of a visitor can execute and render the content of the application once it is downloaded.
  • Field Data
    A data field is a place where you can store data. Commonly used to refer to a column in a database or a field in a data entry form or web form. The field may contain data to be entered as well as data to be displayed.
  • Field Level Statistics
    Field level statistics is that part of a form analytics report that provides insights on the performance of individual fields in terms of time spent, refills, ignores, etc.
  • File carving
    File carving refers to the reconstruction of computer files that takes place without helpful metadata indicators or other specific guidance. In the absence of this directive information, software systems have to use sophisticated heuristics and probability handling tools in order to successfully reassemble files.
  • File Compression
    File compression is a data compression method in which the logical size of a files is reduced to save disk space for easier and faster transmission over a network or the internet. It also Known as File Zipping.
  • File encryption software
    File encryption software is a program designed to guard the contents of computer files via the use of algorithms and adjoining keys. The software is designed specifically for the purpose of protecting data in documents, applications and operating system (OS) files by scrambling that data with an algorithm before it is transferred. Only a user with the algorithm key can unscramble, or decrypt the file.
  • File Replication Service (FRS)
    File Replication Service (FRS) is a feature in Microsoft Windows Server Which is a successor to the LAN Manager Replication service of Windows NT Server. It is used for the replication of the system policies and script by the Windows Server. This data is stored in the SYSVOL, or the system volume, of the server. It is stored in the controllers of the domain, and can be accessed by the client servers of the network. Distributed File System Replication Service is now quickly replacing File Replication Service.
  • File Sizes
    The size of a file is the amount of space it takes up on your hard drive. The File Size is measured in bytes as opposed to bits. One byte consists of 8 bits. The value is thus given out in bytes, kilobytes (KB), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB) and so on. One megabyte is 1024 kilobytes, one kilobyte is 1024 bytes, etc.The display of the File Size might wary by a few bytes depending on the hard drive it is saved on. Some files might take up a little more space on an external drive like a USB stick as compared to on the hard
  • Fileless malware
    Fileless malware is a type of malware that operates without the use of a traditional executable file. Instead, fileless malware uses exploits, macros or other means to generate an attack vector without an actual executable file being downloaded and installed by a user.
  • Findability
    Findability is the ease with which information contained on a website can be found, both from outside the website and by users already on the website. Although findability has relevance outside the World Wide Web, the term is usually used in that context.
  • FiOS
    FiOS uses fiber optic cable made from hundreds of hair-like strands of glass to send pulses of light to carry data directly into a home computer. As the laser-generated pulses of light reach the subscriber\'s home, a converter changes them into electrical impulses that computers use.
  • FirewallD
    firewalld is a firewall management tool for Linux operating systems. It provides firewall features by acting as a front-end for the Linux kernel\'s netfilter framework via the nftables user space utility (before v0.6.0 iptables backend), acting as an alternative to the nft command line program.
  • Firmware
    Firmware is a software program permanently etched into a hardware device such as keyboards, hard drive, BIOS, or video cards. It is programmed to give permanent instructions to communicate with other devices and perform functions like basic input/output tasks. Firmware is typically stored in the flash ROM (read only memory) of a hardware device. It can be erased and rewritten. Firmware was originally designed for high level software and could be changed without having to exchange the hardware for a newer device. Firmware also retains the basic instructions for hardware devices that make them operative. Without firmware, a hardware device would be non-functional.
  • First CPU Idle
    First CPU Idle is one of six metrics tracked in the performance section of the Lighthouse report. Each of these metrics captures some aspect of page load speed. The Lighthouse reports displays the First CPU Idle time period in seconds
  • First Input Delay (FID)
    FID is a metric that tracks the delay between the time a user can attempt to interact with a part of the site, and the time that the interface is able to respond to that interaction.The FID metric is in some ways an intersection of the First Contentful Paint and Time to Interactive metrics.
  • First meaningful paint
    First meaningful paint is a browser-supplied metric that measures how long it takes for the most meaningful content to be fully rendered on the site. Measurement involves watching all layout events as the page loads, filtering by events for new objects above the page fold, and then accounting for web font loading.
  • First paint
    First paint is a browser-based metric supplied that indicates the amount of time from first byte to the first pixel rendered. Unfortunately, this metric is inaccurate in some browser implementations, and some report the event too early, before anything has been rendered to the screen. Due to these limitations, it should be used with care. The main reason to use first paint over the more accurate render start is its ease of use in real time user monitoring, as it’s available in most browsers.
  • FIXED WIDTH LAYOUT
    A fixed width layout has a set width (generally defined in pixels) set by the designer. The width stays the same regardless of screen resolution, monitor size, or browser window size. It allows for minute adjustments to be made to a design that will stay consistent across browsers. Designers have more control over exactly how a site will appear across platforms with this type of layout.
  • Flash
    Macromedia software that creates vector-based graphic animations with small file sizes for use online.
  • Flash cookie
    A flash cookie is a message used in Adobe Flash that is sent from a Web server to a Web browser and is then stored as a data file in the browser. Flash cookies behave like conventional cookies by personalizing the user's experience, but they can hold much more data than conventional cookies. Flash cookies behave differently from conventional cookies in that they may stay installed on a drive after basic cleanup operations. They are also represented on a drive differently than the average cookie, so that many users don’t know they exist. Websites may use flash cookies to improve the user's experience, but these cookies do pose privacy concerns because they can be used to collect information about how people browse certain websites. Flash cookies may also be referred to as local shared objects (LSO).
  • Flat file
    A flat file database stores data in plain text format. In a relational database, a flat file includes a table with one record per line. The different columns in a record are delimited by a comma or tab to separate the fields. Unlike a relational database, a flat file database does not contain multiple tables. Data stored in flat files have no folders or paths associated with them. Flat files are widely used in data warehousing projects to import data. No manipulation is performed on the data they store, but they are preferred due to the ease with which they carry data from the server. Flat files only serve as a bare means of storing table information, but do not hold any relations between the tables included within them.
  • Flex Bugs
    Flex Bugs is a community-curated list of Flexbox browser bugs and workarounds.
  • Flex Container
    A flexbox layout is defined using the flex or inline-flex values of the display property on the parent item. This element then becomes a flex container, and each one of its children becomes a flex item.A value of flex causes the element to become a block level flex container, and inline-flex an inline level flex container. These values create a flex formatting context for the element, which is similar to a block formatting context in that floats will not intrude into the container, and the margins on the container will not collapse with those of the items.
  • Flex Item
    The direct children of a Flex Container (elements with display: flex or display: inline-flex set on them) become flex items. Continuous runs of text inside flex containers will also become flex items.
  • Flex Wraps
    The flex-wrap CSS property sets whether flex items are forced onto one line or can wrap onto multiple lines. If wrapping is allowed, it sets the direction that lines are stacked.
  • Flexbox
    In the specification, Flexbox is described as a layout model for user interface design. The key feature of Flexbox is the fact that the items in a flex layout can grow and shrink. Space can be assigned to the items themselves, or distributed between or around the items.Flexbox also enables alignment of items on the main or cross axis, thus providing a high level of control over the size and alignment of a group of items.
  • Flickering Effect
    Also known as FOOC (Flash of Original Content). In a testing context, the undesirable effect that can occur when the original version of a page appears briefly before the modified page is shown – causing the website visitor to experience a ‘flickering’ of the page. Flickering is caused when the website browser cannot process the changes made to a page fast enough. Although there is no surefire way to avoid flickering, there are some commonly accepted best practices to help avoid it as much as possible, including optimizing your site’s loading time, placing an A/B testing solution tag as high as possible in the source code, and avoiding using a tag manager.
  • Flow Visualization
    Flow visualization is a graphic that tracks the actual pathways that a person has taken through the funnel. The graphic even includes where and when they left the funnel assuming they did not complete a purchase. These are helpful to determine the place of exit as well as the reason for the exit, so that you can tweak and modify trouble areas within your goal funnel.
  • FMP (First Meaningful Paint)
    is one of six metrics tracked in the performance section of the Lighthouse report. Each of these metrics captures some aspect of page load speed. The Lighthouse reports displays the FMP time period in seconds.
  • FOCAL POINT
    The focal point of a website is the spot on a web page that they eye is naturally drawn to. This could be an image, a banner, text, Flash content, or just about anything else. You want to make sure that whatever is acting as your focal point is the most important part of your site.
  • Focus
    Focus is the thinking skill that allows people to begin a task without procrastination and then maintain their attention and effort until the task is complete. Focus helps people pay attention in the midst of distractions and setbacks and to sustain the effort and energy needed to reach a goal.
  • Fog Computing
    Fog computing or fog networking, also known as fogging, is an architecture that uses edge devices to carry out a substantial amount of computation, storage, communication locally and routed over the internet backbone.
  • FOLD
    The fold is a term carried over from newspaper design and pagination (where the fold referred to the physical fold in the paper). The fold in a website is the point on the webpage that rests at the bottom of someone’s browser (in other words, to see anything below the fold, they would have to scroll down). There are varying opinions on how important the fold is in web design.
  • FONT FAMILY
    Font family is a group designation for defining the typefaces used in CSS documents. The font family tag generally lists multiple fonts to be used, and usually ends with the generic font category (such as “serif” or “sans-serif’).
  • Foreign key
    A foreign key is a column or group of columns in a relational database table that provides a link between data in two tables. It acts as a cross-reference between tables because it references the primary key of another table, thereby establishing a link between them. The majority of tables in a relational database system adhere to the foreign key concept. In complex databases and data warehouses, data in a domain must be added across multiple tables, thus maintaining a relationship between them. The concept of referential integrity is derived from foreign key theory. Foreign keys and their implementation are more complex than primary keys.
  • Forever day bug
    A forever day bug refers to a known software bug that a manufacturer has no intention of patching. In most cases, instead of publishing a patch that fixes the vulnerability, the vendor simply adds some steps to user manuals explaining how to deal with the threat. However, this is not considered an ideal method. The U.S. Cyber Emergency Response Team (US-CERT) regularly provides security bulletins that include vulnerability warnings for control systems. However, many system vendors neglect these warnings and refrain from developing ideal patches. Forever days are also known as iDays or infinite days.
  • Form Analytics
    Form Analytics is an analytical process that measures how website visitors engage with forms. It can consist of many elements. The aim is to find user experience issues that - when fixed - will allow more users to complete the form successfully.
  • Forward Proxy
    A forward proxy is used to forward outgoing requests from a private network or intranet to the Internet, usually through a firewall.
  • Four-way handshake
    A four-way handshake is a type of network authentication protocol established by IEEE-802.11i that involves standards set up for the construction and use of wireless local area networks (WLANs). The four-way handshake provides a secure authentication strategy for data delivered through network architectures.
  • Four-way server
    A four-way server is a type of server computing architecture in which four processors are embedded together within a single server CPU. It is built on a multicore processor, or the symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) architecture that supports multiple processors working simultaneously within a server system. A four-way server is primarily designed to achieve higher server computational, processing performance, scalability and fault tolerance by integrating multiple processors within a single processor dye.
  • Fragmentation
    In computer storage, fragmentation is a phenomenon in which storage space is used inefficiently, reducing capacity or performance and often both. The exact consequences of fragmentation depends on the specific system of storage allocation in use and the particular form of fragmentation.
  • Framed Size
    Using a specific type of HTML code that places “pages inside pages”. Has significant disadvantages and a few advantages.
  • Free List
    A free list is a data structure used in a scheme for dynamic memory allocation. It operates by connecting unallocated regions of memory together in a linked list, using the first word of each unallocated region as a pointer to the next.
  • Frequentist Inference
    Frequentist inference is a collection of error probabilistic methods which allows us to learn from data about the true state of nature in the presence of uncertainty by using model-based inference. It\'s core goal involves providing error control in the face of uncertainty.
  • Friction
    Friction is any element of your website that is confusing, distracting, or causes stress for visitors, causing them to leave your page. Examples of friction-causing elements include dissonant colors, too much text, distracting website navigation menus, or landing page forms with too many fields.
  • From
    A form is the place your page visitors will supply information in exchange for your offer. It’s also how those visitors can convert into precious sales leads. As a best practice, only ask for information you need from your leads in order to effectively follow up with and/or qualify them.
  • Function Inlining
    In the C and C++ programming languages, an inline function is one qualified with the keyword inline; this serves two purposes. Firstly, it serves as a compiler directive that suggests (but does not require) that the compiler substitute the body of the function inline by performing inline expansion, i.e. by inserting the function code at the address of each function call, thereby saving the overhead of a function call. In this respect it is analogous to the register storage class specifier, which similarly provides an optimization hint
  • Functional dependency
    Functional dependency is a relationship that exists when one attribute uniquely determines another attribute. If R is a relation with attributes X and Y, a functional dependency between the attributes is represented as X->Y, which specifies Y is functionally dependent on X. Here X is a determinant set and Y is a dependent attribute. Each value of X is associated with precisely one Y value. Functional dependency in a database serves as a constraint between two sets of attributes. Defining functional dependency is an important part of relational database design and contributes to aspect normalization.
  • Functional language
    A functional language is a programming language built over and around logical functions or procedures within its programming structure. It is based on and is similar to mathematical functions in its program flow. Functional languages derive their basic structure from the mathematical framework of Lambda calculus and combinatory logic. Erlang, LISP, Haskell and Scala are the most well-known functional languages.
  • Funnel Testing
    Funnel testing is a testing method that involves comparing not just two pages against each other, but multiple pages that are related and are all part of your sales funnel. Funnel tests or multi-page tests work similarly to A/B tests, but instead of changing only some elements of the control page, you create variations of all the original pages in your sales funnel.
  • Futility Boundary
    A futility boundary is a statistical decision boundary used in sequential testing such as an AGILE A/B test. It is built in such a way that it maintains the type II error probability larger than a specified level, on average. It is usually computed using a beta spending function. Crossing the boundary means that the probability of detecting a statistically significant outcome has fallen below the desired.
  • Gamification
    Gamification is the practice of introducing game-style offers to potential/existing customers. The idea is to encourage them to complete more transactions — in a fun and engaging way. Loyalty program is an example of a gamification strategy.
  • Garbage Collection
    In computer science, garbage collection is a form of automatic memory management. The garbage collector, or just collector, attempts to reclaim garbage, or memory occupied by objects that are no longer in use by the program
  • Garbage Collection Tuning
    Garbage collector is the low- pause, server style generational garbage collector for Java Hotspot VM. The GC uses concurrent and parallel phases to achieve its target pause time and to maintain good throughput. It determines that a garbage collection is necessary, it collects the regions with the least live data first.A garbage collector is a memory management tool.
  • General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
    GDPR is an important regulation that safeguards the usage of Personal Identifiable Information (PII) to protect the privacy of European website visitors\' personal information.
  • Geo Fencing
    Geo-fencing is the practice of targeting users based on their location. It involves using GPS/map technology to create a virtual boundary around a physical location and sending targeted messages to users when they enter the area.
  • Geo Targeting
    Geotargeting in geomarketing and internet marketing is the method of determining the geolocation of a website visitor and delivering different content to that visitor based on their location. This includes country, region/state, city, metro code/zip code, organization, IP address, ISP or other criteria.
  • Geospatial Data Types
    Geospatial data, or spatial data (as it\'s sometimes known), is information that has a geographic aspect to it. In other words, the records in this type of information set have coordinates, an address, city, postal code, or zip code included with them. The most obvious example is a road map.
  • GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
    The Graphics Interchange Format is a bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the online service provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite on June 15, 1987. It has since come into widespread usage on the World Wide Web due to its wide support and portability between many applications and operating systems.
  • Global Assembly Cache (GAC)
    The Global Assembly Cache (GAC) is a folder in the Windows directory to store the .NET assemblies that are specifically designated to be shared by all applications executed on a system. The concept of GAC is the result of the .NET architecture whose design addresses the issue of \"DLL hell\" that existed in COM (Component Object Model). Unlike in COM, there is no need for the assembly in GAC to be registered before its use. Each assembly is accessed globally without any conflict by identifying its name, version, architecture, culture and public key.
  • Global file system (GFS)
    A global file system (GFS), in computer science, is a cluster of files that are shared between a number of computers and end systems from which data or services are accessed, stored and fetched. The computer systems may be physically distant or may be a part of the same network.
  • GMA (Global Memory Access)
    Whenever a thread on the GPU reads or write global memory, it always access a large chunk of memory at once.Even If that thread only needs to read or write a small subset the data in that large chunks, then the GPU can exploit that zand reuse this larger chunk. For all the thread that are trying to access that memory. We say such an access pattern is Global Memory Access
  • Goal Funnels
    A goal funnel is a series of web pages that lead up to a goal. Google analytics offers goal funnel visualization reports. These are extremely beneficial when analyzing your funnels because it saves time and takes away the majority of the labor involved.
  • Gold code
    Gold code is the final form of software code before the software\'s commercial release. A software usually undergoes several development phases before it becomes gold code. First, software functions are individually developed and tested with each newly added function. Then, a graphical user interface is added so that users can perform functions via several means, including buttons, task bars and keyboard shortcuts. Finally, a team tests different function sequences to ensure there are no hidden bugs.
  • Golden image
    In network virtualization, a golden image is an archetypal version of a cloned disk that can be used as a template for various kinds of virtual network hardware. Some refer to the golden image as a master image because multiple copies are used to provide a consistent process for using a disk image. Using golden images as templates, managers can create consistent environments where the end user doesn’t have to know a lot about the technology in order to use it effectively. These kinds of systems are taking off in a big way as companies and enterprises replace old physical networks with virtual structures.
  • Golden master
    Golden master is a stage in the software release cycle in which the software is in its full and final development stage and is ready to be delivered to the customer or to be published commercially. The term was initially coined by Apple Computers to specify software products that have passed the entire production/development and testing phases. Golden master is also known as the release to manufacturing (RTM) version and the gold version.
  • Google blip
    Google blip is a term used to describe the result flaws that the Google search engine sometimes presents. This term was first coined in 2002 by Danny Sullivan, the editor of SearchEngineWatch, on his industry newsletter about the time when the search results placed Microsoft’s home page as the top result for the query words, \"go to hell\". This kind of blip or glitch has nothing to do with the Microsoft site or the aforementioned search phrase being present on the site, but is a result of the phrase being present in the same context as the link to Microsoft’s site.
  • Google Bomb
    The terms Google bombing and Googlewashing refer to the practice of causing a website to rank highly in web search engine results for irrelevant, unrelated or off-topic search terms by linking heavily.
  • Google dorking
    Google dorking is a hacking technique that makes use of Google\'s advanced search services to locate valuable data or hard-to-find content. Google dorking is also known as \"Google hacking.\"
  • Google Search Console
    The Google Search Console is a free web analysis tool offered by Google. With the tool both websites and apps can be analyzed and monitored. Alongside central information on on page and off page factors, users can also receive notifications about unnatural links, if their website has been hacked or the condition of the registered website or app via the Search Console.
  • Graceful degradation
    Graceful degradation is the ability of a computer, machine, electronic system or network to maintain limited functionality even when a large portion of it has been destroyed or rendered inoperative. The purpose of graceful degradation is to prevent catastrophic failure. Ideally, even the simultaneous loss of multiple components does not cause downtime in a system with this feature. In graceful degradation, the operating efficiency or speed declines gradually as an increasing number of components fail.
  • Grading
    Grading can also mean smoothing a surface, as in grading a lawn before planting seeds. Grading comes from the verb grade, which basically means \"group by category.\" When a teacher works on the grading of papers, she\'s dividing them into groups
  • Granularity
    It is the level of detail at which data are stored in a database. When the same data are represented in multiple databases, the granularity may differ.
  • Graph Store
    In computing, a graph database is a database that uses graph structures for semantic queries with nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store data. A key concept of the system is the graph.
  • Graphic Rating Scale
    Graphic Rating Scale is a type of performance appraisal method. In this method traits or behaviours that are important for effective performance are listed out and each employee is rated against these traits. The rating helps employers to quantify the behaviours displayed by its employees. Graphical User Interface GUI.
  • Graphical user interface testing (GUI testing)
    Graphical user interface testing (GUI testing) refers to the testing of a graphical user interface to ensure trouble-free use and implementation. A graphical user interface is a software tool that helps end users to utilize a software environment. These tools need to work well in order to support a user base.
  • Graphics
    CG or computer graphics are any image media, usually movies and pictures that are created through the use of hardware and software. They are often referred to as computer-generated imagery; more commonly known as CGI. An example of a computer graphic is the picture shown on this page.
  • Graphics Device Interface (GDI)
    The Graphics Device Interface (GDI) is a Microsoft Windows application programming interface and core operating system component responsible for representing graphical objects and transmitting them to output devices such as monitors and printers.
  • Greatest Impact
    It is a cost effective alternative with highest achievable performance under the given constraints by maximizing desired factors and minimizing undesired ones. In comparison, maximization means trying to attain the highest or maximum result or outcome without regard to cost or expense.
  • Greynet
    Greynet refers to applications such as messenger, chat, file sharing and media streaming that users who belong to a corporate network download without the permission of their network administrators. The problem with graynet applications is that they consume corporate time and computer resources. These applications also provide an open door through which end user systems may be compromised by malware or viruses.
  • Grouped Lock Request
    A single operations that requests locks on more than one table or rows at a time. Either all or none of the requested locks will be granted. Issuing a grouped lock request at the beginning of a transaction that includes all of the tablets/ rows that can potentially be accessed by the transaction guarantees that a deadlock will not occur.
  • Growth Hacking
    Growth hacking is the use of resource-light and cost-effective digital marketing tactics to help grow and retain an active user base, sell products and gain exposure.
  • GT Matrix
    It is a website performance analytics tool, created by GT.net, who are well known in the digital space for the speed monitoring tool, Pingdom. The key objective of GTMetrix is to analyse the performance of your website and provide you with a list of actionable recommendations to improve it.
  • GZIP
    Gzip is a popular file format for compression and decompression, reducing file size and eventually minimizing bandwidth costs. The process is completed in the background, leaving the end user unaware of the compression of the data.
  • Hacktivism
    Cyber attack strategies include SQL injection attacks, brute force attacks, and distributed-denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. Ideological hacker collectives like Anonymous and the Syrian Electronic Army have been able to quickly mobilize forces and access the botnets and resources they need to launch sophisticated cyber attacks as a means of protest, exacting revenge, or distributing propaganda.
  • Hamming code
    A hamming code is a linear code for error detection that can detect up to two simultaneous bit errors and is capable of correcting single-bit errors. Reliable communication is assured if the hamming distance between the transmitter and receiver is less than or equal to one.
  • Hand coding
    Hand coding involves writing functional code or layout directions in the basic languages in which they are compiled. The alternative is to use various kinds of tools to implement coding conventions without having to hand code them in the original languages.
  • Handle
    A software identification variable that is used to identify and manage the context associated with a particular computing process or thread. For example, SQL uses handles for each user connection (connection handle) and SQL statement (statement handle) among other things.
  • Hard Bounce
    In email marketing, when an email is undeliverable due to a permanent reason, which might include the fact that the recipient’s email address does not exist, the domain name does not exist, or the recipient’s email server has completely blocked delivery.
  • Hard link
    A hard link is a link that directly associates a name with a given file in an operating system. Unlike a soft link, which changes the pointer when the file is renamed, a hard link still points to the underlying file even if the file name changes.
  • Hardcode
    A hardcode is a part of a computer program which cannot be altered in any way except by changing the source code of the program itself. This means that if the software has already been compiled and made into an executable, the hard coded portion of the program stays constant no matter what is done to the software. This is usually done for certain fixed parameters and values that should always be constant, like Pi or the speed of light. The process of creating a hardcode is known as hardcoding.
  • Hardware Threads
    Hardware threads are a feature of some processors that allow better utilisation of the processor under some circumstances. They may be exposed to/by the operating system as appearing to be additional cores (\"hyperthreading\")
  • Hash buster
    A hash buster is a spam filtering tool used to inject unique strings of characters into email messages. It is designed to fool the filter elements, known as hash-based filters, that take a snapshot of a given message to determine whether it is unique from other messages.
  • Hash code
    Hash code in .NET framework is a numeric value which helps in identification of an object during equality testing and also can serve as an index for the object. The value contained in the hash code is not permanent in nature. The purpose of a hash code is to help in efficient lookup and insertion in data collections which are based on a hash table.
  • Hash function
    A hash function takes a group of characters (called a key) and maps it to a value of a certain length (called a hash value or hash). The hash value is representative of the original string of characters, but is normally smaller than the original. Hashing is done for indexing and locating items in databases because it is easier to find the shorter hash value than the longer string. Hashing is also used in encryption. This term is also known as a hashing algorithm or message digest function.
  • Hash partitioning
    Hash partitioning is a method of separating out rows and spreading them evenly in sub-tables within databases. It can be used for situations where the ranges are not applicable such as product ID, employee number and the like. For this spreading out, hash keys are used effectively and efficiently.
  • Hash#
    It is a commonly used abstract data type with two major operations, namely push and pop. Push and pop are carried out on the topmost element, which is the item most recently added to the stack. The push operation adds an element to the stack while the pop operation removes an element from the top position. The stack concept is used in programming and memory organization in computers.
  • Head Term
    Head terms are search terms that are short, popular, and straightforwardThese short terms are called “head terms” based on a bell-curve distribution of keyword usage that displays the high numbers of most-used terms at the “head” end of the bell curve graph.
  • Headers
    W3TC manages the headers (entity tag, cache-control, expires) which control the caching of files in web browsers, reducing server load and improving the user’s perceived performance.
  • Headline Testing
    Headline testing refers to the process of developing multiple title variations for an article or piece of online media, which can then be tested on multiple audience segments to determine which one performs the best.
  • Heat Map
    A heatmap is a graphical representation of data that uses a system of color-coding to represent different values. Heatmaps are used in various forms of analytics but are most commonly used to show user behaviour on specific webpages or web page templates. Heatmaps can be used to show where users have clicked on a page, how far they have scrolled down a page, or used to display the results of eye-tracking tests.
  • Heavy Usage Index
    The heavy usage index is a measure of the relative intensity of consumption. It indicates how heavily the customers for a given brand use the product category to which that brand belongs, compared with the average customer for that category.
  • Hero Image
    A hero image is a website design term used to describe an oversized banner image at the top of a website. Sometimes called a “hero header”, it serves as a user’s first glimpse of your company and offering because of its prominent placement towards the top of a webpage that usually extends full-width.
  • Hesitation Time
    Hesitation time is a field-level stat in a form analytics report that shows the time spent by the visitor on the field when they were not actively filling it up.
  • Heuristic
    In computing, heuristic refers to a problem-solving method executed through learning-based techniques and experience. When exhaustive search methods are impractical, heuristic methods are used to find efficient solutions. Heuristic methods are designed for conceptual simplicity and enhanced computational performance - often at the cost of accuracy.
  • Heuristic filtering
    Heuristic filtering refers to the use of various algorithms and resources to examine text or content in specific ways. The word heuristic describes a type of analysis that relies on experience or specific intuitive criteria, rather than simple technical metrics. The use of high-level algorithms allows for heuristic analysis of content, where humans can program computers to think in certain ways rather than just applying a purely quantitative analysis. Heuristic filtering is most widely used on the Internet to filter email and Web access.
  • Heuristic programming
    Heuristic programming approaches the idea of artificial intelligence by solving problems using experience-based rules or protocols.
  • Heuristics testing
    Heuristics testing is the testing of algorithms, code modules or other kinds of projects where testing strategies rely on past data about probabilities. These targeted types of testing often allow for more intelligent investigation of where any bugs or problems may occur. Heuristics testing is also used in screening technologies such as email filtering. Heuristics testing is also sometimes called experience-based testing. Developers or others may bring higher-level, experience-based decision making processes into how software testing is done in order to make this testing more efficient.
  • HEXADECIMAL
    Also referred to a “hex” numbers, they are a base-16 numbering system used to define colors online. Hex numbers include the numerals 0-9 and letters A-F. Hexadecimal numbers are written in three sets of hex pairs. Because screen colors are RGB (Red, Green, Blue), the first pair defines the red hue, the second pair defines the green hue, and the third pair defines the blue.
  • Hidden Text
    Hidden text is computer text that is displayed in such a way as to be invisible or unreadable. Hidden text is most commonly achieved by setting the font colour to the